""" ( - )

1. """ a note has few details recorded about him/her.


Merging record - problem with spouse having a curious duplication.

Titles in diagrams

Centering "unhid" records in diagrams

Formatting in notes - still!

Records - need a back button

Diagram connecting two individuals by single line only (just select two individuals and you will see their relationship and intermediate connecting relatives - now make a normal diagram and just hide loads.

"Find" feature in notes.


Articles to read:


Notes and Queries 1896 s8-IX(216):132; doi:10.1093/nq/s8-IX.216.132-g
© 1896 by Oxford University Press (Sir Gideon)

Notes and Queries 1911 s11-III(63):194-195; doi:10.1093/nq/s11-III.63.194-f
© 1911 by Oxford University Press (Scott, Murray)

Notes and Queries 1898 s9-I(4):61-63; doi:10.1093/nq/s9-I.4.61
© 1898 by Oxford University Press

Notes and Queries 1909 s10-XI(270):170; doi:10.1093/nq/s10-XI.270.170-a
© 1909 by Oxford University Press

Traquair House, Peeblesshire
Magazine article by Richard Cavendish; History Today, Vol. 48, August 1998

Notes and Queries 1860 s2-X(244):178-179; doi:10.1093/nq/s2-X.244.178-f
© 1860 by Oxford University Press

Notes and Queries 1867 s3-XI(275):277-278; doi:10.1093/nq/s3-XI.275.277-d
© 1867 by Oxford University Press

Notes and Queries 1898 s9-II(51):486; doi:10.1093/nq/s9-II.51.486-b
© 1898 by Oxford University Press

Notes and Queries 1875 s5-IV(96):353; doi:10.1093/nq/s5-IV.96.353-b
© 1875 by Oxford University Press

Notes and Queries 1866 s3-IX(227):374-375; doi:10.1093/nq/s3-IX.227.374-d
© 1866 by Oxford University Press


The Role of Banks in the Finance of the West Yorkshire Wool Textile Industry, c. 1780-1850
Pat Hudson
The Business History Review, Vol. 55, No. 3 (Autumn, 1981), pp. 379-402

Dinner 1928 that MFFW was invited to (African Society)

Dinner of the Society
Journal of the Royal African Society, Vol. 28, No. 109 (Oct., 1928), pp. 71-82
This article consists of 12 page(s).


Suppose you have some extra text that you want to add into boxes in diagrams, but you want it to be free text that you write on a per-person basis. If the text is such that you are happy for it to be a paragraph in the person's record notes (or several paragraphs) you could do the following:

Edit your text scheme (Text tab of the Diagram Options dialog) and insert " < Custom Item > " (select " < Custom Item > " and press the '>' button). In the Edit Text Scheme Item text, set the Template to:


This will get you the first paragraph of the person's note (change '1' to '2' if you want the 2nd etc). Set the Description to "Extra Diagram Note". Tick "Flag Condition" and enter "Note in Diagram" (say) in the Record Flag field and make sure that the value of "must be..." is set to 'Set'. Press OK. Position this item line wherever you want it to appear amongst the other lines in the text scheme using the Move up/down arrow buttons, and save the text scheme.

Then select the people that you want to override text for and use Edit > Record Flags to set a new flag for them called "Note in Diagram" (or whatever you called the new flag). Now, whatever you type into the first paragraph of the note for these individuals will appear in the appropriate place in the text boxes in the diagrams when you use this text scheme.

If you want the whole note to appear (not just the first paragraph), set the
template to


Yet another alternative, which would mean that you wouldn't need to set a record flag, would be to use the following template instead

=GetLabelledText(%INDI.NOTE2%, "Extra Diagram Text:")

If you used this template, when you want extra 'free' text to appear for a given person only, simply edit the person's note and add the 'free text' as a paragraph somewhere in the note, starting with the label "Extra Diagram Text:" (make sure the spelling exactly matches the template version). Whatever appears after this label will be displayed in the appropriate place in the box.

The disadvantage of the latter is that you may not want this label appearing in notes as it may look odd when notes are output in reports. You can get round that problem by putting the whole paragraph in double-square brackets (which are used to mark a 'private note' - not normally output in reports). e.g. you could add the following to a note, perhaps at the end of it:

[ [
Extra Diagram Text: Future Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
] ]

There are more options and other ways of getting free text into diagram boxes (you can do it avoiding having to edit a person's notes at all if you use enough flags) but this at any rate is one way.

Incidentally, you may not just want to add some extra text. You may also want to hide some or all of the other text scheme lines for given people. If so, simply create a flag (e.g. "Hide Standard Text") and edit the relevant text lines in the text scheme to make them conditional upon the "Hide Standard Text" not being set. Then set that flag on the appropriate records.


1841 Transcription Hints
Transcription Software

The FAQ and help files should provide all the instruction information needed to transcribe. Also visit the project home page and read the information there, downloading anything useful.

SSCENS was created for the 1891 England/Wales census; there are a few things to be aware of when adapting it for the 1841 Scotland census. More specific instructions for Scotland are below.

General Notes on Transcribing
The general rule for transcription is to enter things "as is". There are a couple exceptions to this rule, which will be dealt with in the next section.

1 The 1841 has several differences with later census returns. The enumerators collected less information. Ages were rounded down for people over 15. The books were written in pencil rather than ink, making the reproduction worse. There are no schedule numbers. Because of the poor quality of many of the fiche, you may be struggling to read some of it. Please just give it your best shot. Remember, behind you comes a checker and the validater.

2 The 1841 census used a series of slashes to distinguish between families and households. The enumerators did not always follow the rules as laid out. Review your parish before you begin transcription to get a sense of the system your enumerator's were using. In general:

Ø A single slash ("/") after a name indicates that the people following are not members of the preceding household. Sometimes they are a separate household living in the same building and sometimes they are employees, lodgers, distant relatives, etc. living in the same household as the main household.

Ø A double slash ("//") after a name indicates that the people following were members of another household. There can be more than one household in a building, particularly in larger cities.

Each household must have a schedule number – default is 0. Uninhabited buildings must also be included as neighbourhood searching is expected to be provided as part of the final data base.

3. Take the time to read the enumeration information at the beginning of the ED and the enumerator's notes (if applicable), at the end of the ED. These may contain further clarification on proper address spellings and any questionable entries.

Notes on using SSCENS for 1841 Scotland
1. Column E — Schedule number: Schedule numbers were not used on the 1841 census; however a schedule number MUST be entered in the row for each new head of household for the database to work. Please enter "0". Each household has to be determined. If the “slashes” don't solve the problem for you, then look at the complete picture, addresses, surnames, ages, occupations etc. Then decide what the household is.

2. Column G — Address: All "dittos" and any abbreviations clearly derived from preceding place names should be expanded. For example the address "H. Cot." following the address "Hiltonhead" should be expanded to "Hiltonhead Cot”. If the abbreviation is unclear, enter it as is. Also, use the spelling used by the enumerator, no matter how unusual it seems.

3. Column J — Forename: In 1841 no modern first names were likely. Before 1900, the majority of men in Scotland had one of the following names: James, John, William, Alexander, Charles, or Robert. The majority of women had one of the following names: Mary, Margaret, Martha, Jane/Jean, Janet, Agnes, Elisabeth, or Isabella.

4. Column Q — Occupation: Understandable abbreviations such as "Ag Lab" are acceptable, however please expand out other abbreviations (example: AL, FS, HLW) where you are certain of the meaning so that it is clearly understandable. All "dittos" should also be expanded. If you are unclear as to the meaning of the abbreviation, enter it as is.

5. Column T — Birth County: The 1841 enumerators used "y" for born in county, "n" for not born in county, "i" for Ireland, "e" for England, and "f" for Foreign. Translate these over as follows

y = AYR (or whatever county you are transcribing
n = OUC
i = IRL
e = ENG
f = OVF
no entry = UNK
other = if enumerator quoted other county then enter code

1841 Common Occupations
"Instructions to Enumerators" for the 1841 Census required the use of standard abbreviations for Occupations. FreeCEN policy is to expand these whenever there is no doubt about the intended meaning.


A. or Ap.
Apprentice - can be abbreviated as "appren"

Ag. Lab. or A.L.
Agricultural Labourer - can be abbreviated as "Ag Lab"

Army H.P.
Army, Half-Pay

Army Pen
Army Pensioner

B. Smith or B.S.
Black Smith


FYI - "ditto", indicates occupation is the same as the one above

FYI - Occupation frequently given by prostitutes in larger cities

Female Servant

Hand Loom Weaver.

H.L.C.W., H.L.L.W., or H.L.W.W.
Hand Loom Weaver - Cotton, Linen, or Woolen respectively.


Journeyman - can be abbreviated as "jrnymn"


M. or m.
"M." is supposed to be Manufacturer and "m." is supposed to be Maker. Enumerator's often used them interchangeably and it is sometimes an abbreviation for Miner (e.g. Coal M.)

Male Servant

P. Pauper
Parish Pauper

Pirn Winder
FYI - Common occupation for women in weaving trade

Rail. Lab.
Railway Labourer


Sp. Deal
Spirit Dealer

1841 Enumerator's Instructions
Respecting the manner in which Entries may be made in the Enumeration Schedule.

After "City or Borough of" write the name, if the District is in a City or Borough: if not, draw a line through those words, or through whichever of the two the District does not belong to. After "parish or Township of" write the name; if there is not Township in the Parish, draw a line through "Township:" if it is a Township, write the name of the Township and draw a line through "Parish". If it is Extra-parochial, draw a line through "parish or Township of," and write "Extra-Parochial" over those words, and after it the name.

In the column headed "Place," write the name of the house (if it has a name), or of the street or other part of the town, or of the village, hamlet, or extra-parochial place in which it stands, opposite to the mark denoting each house, or the first house in the street, etc, and write "do" opposite to every other in the same street, etc.

"Houses." Insert houses uninhabited or building in the manner shown in the Example, writing "1U" or "1B," as the case may be, in the proper column, opposite to the inhabited house to which each stands nearest. Every house which is unoccupied at the time of your visit and is believed not to have been slept in the night before may be inserted as uninhabited. New houses, not yet inhabited, may be inserted as "Building." Where there is a row of such houses the total number may be inserted before the letter "B" instead of the separate insertion of each.

By "House" is meant Dwelling-House; and every building in which any person habitually sleeps must be considered a s dwelling-house; but buildings, such as churches or warehouses, or any others, which were never used or intended to be used as dwelling-houses, must not be inserted.

"Names of each Person who abode therein the preceding night." Insert, without distinction or omission, every living person who abode or slept in each house. Leave no blank spaces between the names, but enter each immediately after the one preceding it, so that each page may contain 25. Set down one after the other those who have the same surname, beginning with the heads of the household, and put no others between them. As long as the surname is the same do not repeat it, but write "do." Where there are more Christian names than one, as in "John William," or "Maria Louisa," write down only the first.

When the person is a Peer or Peeress, the title may be written instead of the name. The words "Lord," "Lady," "Sir," "Rt Hon." "Hon," may be put before the names of those to whom they belong.

If no Christian name has been given to an infant write "n.k." for not known, as in the Example.

If, as may happen in a lodging-house or inn, a person who slept there the night before, has gone away early and the name is not known, write "n.k." where the name should have been.

At the end of the names of each household draw a line thus "/" as in the Example. At the end of the names of the inmates in each house draw a double line thus "//".

"Age and Sex." Write the age of each person opposite to the name in one of the two columns headed "Males" and "Females," according to the sex.

Write the age of every person under 15 years of age as it is stated to you. For persons aged 15 years and upwards, write the lowest of the term of 5 years within which the age is.

Thus — for Persons aged
15 years and under 20 write 15
20 years and under 25 write 20
25 years and under 30 write 25
30 years and under 35 write 30
35 years and under 40 write 35
40 years and under 45 write 40
45 years and under 50 write 45
50 years and under 55 write 50
55 years and under 60 write 55
60 years and under 65 write 60
65 years and under 70 write 65
70 years and under 75 write 70
and so on up to the greatest ages.

"Profession, Trade, Employment, or of Independent Means." Men, or widows, or single women, having no profession or calling, but living on their means, may be inserted as independent, which may be written shortly, thus "Ind."

The profession, etc, of wives, or of sons or daughters living with their husbands or parents, and assisting them, but not apprenticed or receiving wages, need not be set down.

All persons serving in Her Majesty's Land service as officers or privates in the Line, Cavalry, Engineers, or Artillery, may be entered as "Army," without any statement of their rank, adding "H.P." for Half-pay, and "P" for Pensioner.

All persons belonging to Her Majesty's Sea service, including Marines, may be entered as "Navy." Adding 'H.P." for Half-Pay, and "P" for Pensioner.

All domestic servants may be entered as "M.S." for Male Servant, or "F.S.." for Female Servant, without statement of their particular duties, as whether butler, groom, gardener, housekeeper, cook, etc, etc.

Insert all other professions, trades, or employments, as they are described by the parties, or by others on their behalf, writing 'J." for Journeyman, "Ap." for Apprentice, and "Sh" for Shopman, after a statement of the trade of those who are such. "Master" need not be inserted; everyone one will be so considered who is not entered as journeyman or apprentice.

Time may be saved by writing the following words, shortly thus, "M." for Manufacturer, "m." for Maker, as "shoem.” for Shoemaker, "Cl." for Clerk, "Ag Lab." for Agricultural labourer, which may include all farming servants and labourers in husbandry. Use no other marks or abbreviations but those herein allowed.

Rank, or any such terms as "Esq." or "Gentleman" must not be entered in this column.

"Where born — Whether in the same County" Write opposite to each name except those of Irish, Scotch, or Foreigners,) "Y." or "N." for Yes or No, as they case may be.

Whether in Scotland, Ireland, or Foreign parts. Write in this column, "S." for those who were born in Scotland; "I." for those born in Ireland; and "F." for Foreigners. This latter mark is to be used only for those who are subjects of some Foreign State, and not for British subjects who happen to have been born abroad.

Enter the Totals at the bottom of each page as in the Example, and enter and add up all the Totals in the summary n the last page. This may be done at home, and must be written with ink.

The entries in the pages of the Enumeration Schedule (except the Totals) may be written with a pencil, which will be furnished for that purpose. All that is written in the 3 pages following them must be with ink.


Clifford, Hugh. The House of Clifford, from Before the Conquest. Chichester, Sussex: Phillimore, 1987.