See also

Matilda EMPRESS OF ENGLAND (c. 1102-1167)

1. Matilda of Normandy EMPRESS OF ENGLAND, daughter of Henry I KING OF ENGLAND (1068-1135) and Editha of Scotland (c. 1079-1118), was born circa [Julian] August 1102. She died on [Julian] 10 September 1167. She married Geoffrey V PLANTAGENET.

 

Geoffrey V PLANTAGENET and Matilda of Normandy EMPRESS OF ENGLAND had the following children:

 

Henry II KING OF ENGLAND (1133-1189). Henry was born on [Julian] 5 March 1133. He had the title 'King of England'. He died on [Julian] 6 July 1189.

Second Generation

2. Henry I KING OF ENGLAND, son of William I KING OF ENGLAND and Matilda de Flandre, was born in [Julian] September 1068. He married Editha of Scotland on [Julian] 11 November 1100. He married Adeliza of Louvain on 2 February 1121. He died on [Julian] 1 December 1135. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. He married unknown lady.

 

unknown lady and Henry I KING OF ENGLAND had the following children:

 

Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (1090-1147). Robert, was born in 1090. He died on 31 October 1147.

 

3. Editha of Scotland (known as 'Matilda'), daughter of Malcolm III KING OF SCOTLAND and Saint Margaret "the Exile", was born circa 1079 in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland. She had the title 'Queen Consort Matilda'. She died on [Julian] 1 May 1118 in Westminster Palace.

 

Sister of Edmund, Edgar and David I (The Saint) Kings of Scotland. As of 11 November 1100, her married name was Queen Consort Matilda of England.

 

Henry I KING OF ENGLAND and Editha of Scotland had the following children:

 

1

Matilda of Normandy EMPRESS OF ENGLAND (c. 1102-1167)

Third Generation

4. William I KING OF ENGLAND, son of Robert I 6TH DUC DE NORMANDIE and Herleva de FALAISE, was born circa [Julian] 1027. He married Matilda de Flandre in 1053 in Cathedrale Notre Dame d'Eu, Normandie. He died on [Julian] 9 September 1087.

 

William I 'the Conqueror', King of England also went by the nick-name of William 'the Conqueror'.5 William I 'the Conqueror', King of England also went by the nick-name of William 'le Batard' (or in English, the Bastard).5 In 1035 on his father's death, William was recognised by his family as the heir - an exception to the general rule that illegitimacy barred succession. His great uncle looked after the Duchy during William's minority, and his overlord, King Henry I of France, knighted him at the age of 15.6 He succeeded to the title of 7th Duc de Normandie on 22 June 1035.3 He gained the title of Comte de Maine in 1063.3 He fought in the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066 at Hastings, East Sussex, England.3 He gained the title of King William I of England on 25 December 1066.7 He was crowned King of England on 25 December 1066 at Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England, and styled 'Willielmus Rex Anglorum.7' He fought in the Siege of Mantes in September 1087.4
From 1047 onwards, William successfully dealt with rebellion inside Normandy involving his kinsmen and threats from neighbouring nobles, including attempted invasions by his former ally King Henry I of France in 1054 (the French forces were defeated at the Battle of Mortemer). William's military successes and reputation helped him to negotiate his marriage to Mathilda, daughter of Count Baldwin V of Flanders. At the time of his invasion of England, William was a very experienced and ruthless military commander, ruler and administrator who had unified Normandy and inspired fear and respect outside his duchy. William's claim to the English throne was based on his assertion that, in 1051, Edward the Confessor had promised him the throne (he was a distant cousin) and that Harold II - having sworn in 1064 to uphold William's right to succeed to that throne - was therefore a usurper. Furthermore, William had the support of Emperor Henry IV and papal approval. William took seven months to prepare his invasion force, using some 600 transport ships to carry around 7,000 men (including 2,000-3,000 cavalry) across the Channel. On 28 September 1066, with a favourable wind, William landed unopposed at Pevensey and, within a few days, raised fortifications at Hastings. Having defeated an earlier invasion by the King of Norway at the Battle of Stamford Bridge near York in late September, Harold undertook a forced march south, covering 250 miles in some nine days to meet the new threat, gathering inexperienced reinforcements to replenish his exhausted veterans as he marched.
At the Battle of Senlac (near Hastings) on 14 October, Harold's weary and under-strength army faced William's cavalry (part of the forces brought across the Channel) supported by archers. Despite their exhaustion, Harold's troops were equal in number (they included the best infantry in Europe equipped with their terrible two-handled battle axes) and they had the battlefield advantage of being based on a ridge above the Norman positions. The first uphill assaults by the Normans failed and a rumour spread that William had been killed; William rode among the ranks raising his helmet to show he was still alive. The battle was close-fought: a chronicler described the Norman counter-attacks and the Saxon defence as 'one side attacking with all mobility, the other withstanding as though rooted to the soil'. Three of William's horses were killed under him. William skilfully co-ordinated his archers and cavalry, both of which the English forces lacked. During a Norman assault, Harold was killed - hit by an arrow and then mowed down by the sword of a mounted knight. Two of his brothers were also killed. The demoralised English forces fled. In 1070, as penance, William had an abbey built on the site of the battle, with the high altar occupying the spot where Harold fell. The ruins of Battle Abbey, and the town of Battle, which grew up around it, remain.
Three months after his coronation, he was confident enough to return to Normandy leaving two joint regents (one of whom was his half-brother Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, who was later to commission the Bayeux Tapestry) behind to administer the kingdom. However, it took William six years to consolidate his conquest, and even then he had to face constant plotting and fighting on both sides of the Channel. In 1068, Harold's sons raided the south-west coast of England (dealt with by William's local commanders), and there were uprisings in the Welsh Marches, Devon and Cornwall. William appointed earls who, in Wales and in all parts of the kingdom, undertook to guard the threatened frontiers and maintain internal security in return for land.
In 1069, the Danes, in alliance with Prince Edgar the Aetheling (Ethelred's great-grandson) and other English nobles, invaded the north and took York. Taking personal charge, and pausing only to deal with the rising at Stafford, William drove the Danes back to their ships on the Humber. In a harsh campaign lasting into 1070, William systematically devastated Mercia and Northumbria to deprive the Danes of their supplies and prevent recovery of English resistance. Churches and monasteries were burnt, and agricultural land was laid to waste, creating a famine for the unarmed and mostly peasant population which lasted at least nine years. Although the Danes were bribed to leave the north, King Sweyn of Denmark and his ships threatened the east coast (in alliance with various English, including Hereward the Wake) until a treaty of peace was concluded in June 1070.
Further north, where the boundary with Scotland was unclear, King Malcolm III was encroaching into England. Yet again, William moved swiftly and moved land and sea forces north to invade Scotland. The Treaty of Abernethy in 1072 marked a truce, which was reinforced by Malcolm's eldest son being accepted as a hostage. William consolidated his conquest by starting a castle-building campaign in strategic areas. Originally these castles were wooden towers on earthen 'mottes' (mounds) with a bailey (defensive area) surrounded by earth ramparts, but many were later rebuilt in stone. By the end of William's reign over 80 castles had been built throughout his kingdom, as a permanent reminder of the new Norman feudal order.
William's wholesale confiscation of land from English nobles and their heirs (many nobles had died at the battles of Stamford Bridge and Senlac) enabled him to recruit and retain an army, by demanding military duties in exchange for land tenancy granted to Norman, French and Flemish allies. He created up to 180 'honours' (lands scattered through shires, with a castle as the governing centre), and in return had some 5,000 knights at his disposal to repress rebellions and pursue campaigns; the knights were augmented by mercenaries and English infantry from the Anglo-Saxon militia, raised from local levies. William also used the fyrd, the royal army - a military arrangement which had survived the Conquest. The King's tenants-in-chief in turn created knights under obligation to them and for royal duties (this was called subinfeudation), with the result that private armies centred around private castles were created - these were to cause future problems of anarchy for unfortunate or weak kings. By the end of William's reign, a small group of the King's tenants had acquired about half of England's landed wealth. Only two Englishmen still held large estates directly from the King. A foreign aristocracy had been imposed as the new governing class.
The expenses of numerous campaigns, together with an economic slump (caused by the shifts in landed wealth, and the devastation of northern England for military and political reasons), prompted William to order a full-scale investigation into the actual and potential wealth of the kingdom to maximise tax revenues. The Domesday survey was prompted by ignorance of the state of land holding in England, as well as the result of the costs of defence measures in England and renewed war in France. The scope, speed, efficiency and completion of this survey was remarkable for its time and resulted in the two-volume Domesday Book of 1086, which still exists today. William needed to ensure the direct loyalty of his feudal tenants. The 1086 Oath of Salisbury was a gathering of William's 170 tenants-in-chief and other important landowners who took an oath of fealty to William. William's reach extended elsewhere into the Church and the legal system. French superseded the vernacular (Anglo-Saxon). Personally devout, William used his bishops to carry out administrative duties. Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1070, was a first-class administrator who assisted in government when William was absent in France, and who reorganised the Church in England. Having established the primacy of his archbishopric over that of York, and with William's approval, Lanfranc excommunicated rebels, and set up Church or spiritual courts to deal with ecclesiastical matters. Lanfranc also replaced English bishops and abbots (some of whom had already been removed by the Council of Winchester under papal authority) with Norman or French clergy to reduce potential political resistance. In addition, Canterbury and Durham Cathedrals were rebuilt and some of the bishops' sees were moved to urban centres.
At his coronation, William promised to uphold existing laws and customs. The Anglo-Saxon shire courts and 'hundred' courts (which administered defence and tax, as well as justice matters) remained intact, as did regional variations and private Anglo-Saxon jurisdictions. To strengthen royal justice, William relied on sheriffs (previously smaller landowners, but replaced by influential nobles) to supervise the administration of justice in existing county courts, and sent members of his own court to conduct important trials. However, the introduction of Church courts, the mix of Norman/Roman law and the differing customs led to a continuing complex legal framework. More severe forest laws reinforced William's conversion of the New Forest into a vast Royal deer reserve. These laws caused great resentment, and to English chroniclers the New Forest became a symbol of William's greed. Nevertheless the King maintained peace and order. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1087 declared 'he was a very stern and violent man, so no one dared do anything contrary to his will ... Amongst other things the good security he made in this country is not to be forgotten.'
William spent the last months of his reign in Normandy, fighting a counter-offensive in the French Vexin territory against King Philip's annexation of outlying Normandy territory. Before his death on 9 September 1087, William divided his 'Anglo-Norman' state between his sons. (The scene was set for centuries of expensive commitments by successive English monarchs to defend their inherited territories in France.) William bequeathed Normandy as he had promised to his eldest son Robert, despite their bitter differences (Robert had sided with his father's enemies in Normandy, and even wounded and defeated his father in a battle there in 1079). His son, William Rufus, was to succeed William as King of England, and the third remaining son, Henry, was left 5,000 pounds in silver.8 He has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.9.

 

5. Matilda de Flandre, daughter of Baldwin V KING OF FLANDERS and Alise of FRANCE, was born in 1032 in Flanders. She and William I KING OF ENGLAND had the following children:

 

2

Henry I KING OF ENGLAND (1068-1135)

Adela of England ( - )

 

6. Malcolm III KING OF SCOTLAND, son of Duncan I KING OF SCOTLAND and Sybilla of Northumbria, was born circa 1031. He died on [Julian] 13 November 1093. He married Saint Margaret "the Exile".

 

Malcolm III 'Caennmor', King of Scotland was the son of Duncan I 'the Gracious', King of Scotland and Sybilla of Northumbria. He was born circa 1031.1 He married, firstly, Ingibiorg 'Earl's Mother' Finnsdottir, daughter of Finn Arnasson, Jarl of Halland and Bergljot, between 1059 and 1066. He married, secondly, Saint Margaret 'the Exile', daughter of Edward 'Atheling' and Agatha, in 1069 at Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland. He died on 13 November 1093 at Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England, killed by Arkil Morel in an ambush. He was buried at El Escorial Palace, Madrid, Spain. He was buried at Tynemouth, Tyne and Wear, England. He was buried at Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife.
He gained the title of Prince Malcolm of Cumbria in 1034. He gained the title of King Malcolm of Strathclyde in 1034. He succeeded to the title of King Malcolm III of Scotland on 17 March 1058.1 He was crowned King of Scotland on 25 April 1058 at Scone Abbey, Scone, Perthshire, Scotland.
He succeeded Macbeth, but was exiled to England during the reign of Macbeth. With English military help he defeated (1054 - Battle of Dunsinane) and killed (1057) Macbeth, and became King of Scotland after the death of Macbeth's stepson and successor Lulach. Five times he unsuccessfully invaded northern England, and was killed on the fifth attempt. He was effectively ruler of Strathclyde and Lothian from 1054.

 

7. Saint Margaret "the Exile", daughter of Edward KING OF ENGLAND (UNCROWNED) and Agatha of Brunswick, was born in 1045 in Hungary. She died on [Julian] 16 November 1093 in Edinburgh Castle.

 

Saint Margaret 'the Exile' was the daughter of Edward 'Atheling' and Agatha. She was born in 1045 at Hungary. She married Malcolm III 'Caennmor', King of Scotland, son of Duncan I 'the Gracious', King of Scotland and Sybilla of Northumbria, in 1069 at Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland. She died on 16 November 1093 at Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland. She was buried at Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife. She was buried at Jesuit College, Douai, France.


She was the granddaughter of Edmund Ironsides and 7th in descent from Alfred the Great
In 1250 she was canonised as Saint Margaret.

Born about 1045, Princess Margaret was a daughter of Edward "Outremere", or "the Exile", and Agatha, kinswoman of Gisela, the wife of St. Stephen of Hungary . She was the granddaughter of Edmund Ironside.



The chief authority for Margaret's life is the contemporary biography printed in Roman " Acta SS .", II, June, 320. Its authorship has been ascribed to Turgot, the Saint's confessor, a monk of Durham and later Archbishop of St. Andrews, as well as to Theodoric, a somewhat obscure monk

The Norman conquest forced the Anglo Margaret and her family to flee to Scotland in 1070 where shortly thereafter she married the King, Malcom II (Canmore). As Queen and co-Regent, Margaret bore eight children (two daughters and six sons). She was known to have been a particularly involved and good mother - a departure from the contemporary practice of leaving the rearing of children to servants and tutors. Margaret's daughter Matilda married Henry I of England , making her an ancestress of the present British royal house.



Queen Margaret was renown for her moderating and good influence on her husband and for her devout piety and religious observance. As Queen, Margaret used her influence to bring Scotland into the more modern practices, disciplines of European Christianity and is celebrated as a clerical reformer. Though strong-willed, Margaret used reason and encouragement to influence change, not her authority as co-Regent and Queen. Under Queen Margaret's leadership the Rite of the Celebration of the Mass was brought under standardized norms, the vernacular of the Mass was changed from the many dialects of Gaelic spoken throughout Scotland to the unifying Latin, the Scots began to receive Communion regularly, and the observance of Lent was improved.



Although her influence in causing the clergy to adopt Latin to celebrate the Mass was intended as a tool by which all Scots could worship in unity, along with the other Christians of Western Europe, Queen Margaret's introduction of Anglo-Norman manners and values into Celtic Scotland laid the cultural groundwork for the future induction of her land and people into a greater England and Britain. While many hagiographers view Queen Margaret's goals as not simply uniting the Scots, but Scotland and England together as a way of ending bloody warfare amongst the clannish highlanders, Scotland returned to a period of isolation immediately following her death.



In 1093, King Malcom was murdered through treachery near Alnwick and was buried at Dunfermline Abbey, which had been founded by in 1072 Margaret. She foretold the day of her death, joining her husband's eternal rest on 16 November 1093, her body being buried before the high altar at Dunfermline.



In 1250, Queen Margaret was canonized by Innocent IV, and her relics were translated on 19 June, 1259, to a new shrine, the base of which is still visible beyond the modern east wall of her restored chapel. At the Reformation her head passed into the possession of Mary Queen of Scots, and later was secured by the Jesuits at Douai , where it is believed to have perished during the French Revolution. According to George Conn, " De duplici statu religionis apud Scots " (Rome, 1628), the rest of the relics, together with those of Malcolm, were acquired by Philip II of Spain, and placed in two urns in the Escorial. When, however, Bishop Gillies of Edinburgh applied through Pius IX for their restoration to Scotland , they could not be found.



St. Margaret is remembered for her fervent faith, practiced piety and religious observance and continues to be celebrated as Scotland's most beloved saint. St. Margaret was loved by the poor, especially orphans to whom she was particularly attached in personal care and through the unceasing distribution of alms. She was the foundress of many churches, convents and monasteries, including the Abbey of Dunfermline, built to enshrine her greatest treasure, a relic of the true Cross. Her book of the Gospels, richly adorned with jewels, which one day dropped into a river and was according to legend miraculously recovered, is now in the Bodleian library at Oxford . St. Margaret's son King David of Scotland is also celebrated by the people of Scotland as a Saint.
Feast of St. Margaret of Scotland

The feast of St. Margaret is observed by the whole Roman Catholic Church on 10 June. The Episcopal Church Commemorates St. Margaret each year on the Sunday closest to the anniversary of her death November, 16 th .

This is the fast that I choose, says the Lord: to share your bread with the hungry, and bring the homeless poor into your house; when you see the naked, to cover them, and not to hid yourself from your own kin. Isaiah 58:6-7.

 

Malcolm III KING OF SCOTLAND and Saint Margaret "the Exile" had the following children:

 

3

Editha of Scotland (c. 1079-1118)

Mary of Scotland ( - )