See also

Marius KING OF BRITAIN ( -c. 125)

1. Marius of Siluria "Meurig" KING OF BRITAIN, son of Gweirydd of Siluria KING OF BRITAIN ( - ) and Genvissa of Britain QUEEN OF BRITAIN ( - ), was born. He died circa 0125.

 

Marius (Welsh: Meurig) was a legendary king of the Britons during the time of the Roman occupation of Britain as accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. He was the son of King Arvirargus and ruled following his father's death.

Known as one of the wiser kings of Britain, he ruled in the time when the Picts first came to Britain. It appears that a fleet of ships under the leadership of Sodric came from Scythia and landed in Albany. Once there, they began to destroy the lands and Marius was forced to react. Following numerous battles, Marius killed Sodric and set up a stone there to remember that triumph. In addition, that land became known as Westmorland after him. In respect for the people he defeated, he gave them a small portion of Albany called Caithness to live in. Marius refused, however, to give them Briton wives to marry so the Picts fled to Ireland and took wives there.

In regard to Rome, Marius established close ties and good diplomacy through tribute and respect of the Roman citizens in Britain. He followed the laws of his ancestors and ruled the island justly. When he died, he was succeeded by his son, Coilus.

 

Marius of Siluria "Meurig" KING OF BRITAIN had the following children:

 

Coel I KING OF BRITIAN ( - )

Second Generation

2. Gweirydd of Siluria KING OF BRITAIN (also known as Arvigarus), son of Cymbeline KING OF THE CATUVELLAUNI, married Genvissa of Britain QUEEN OF BRITAIN.

 

(Arviragus) (Caractacus??). Arvirargus was a legendary king of the Britons as accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. He was the son of King Cymbeline and succeeded his brother, King Guiderius fighting against the Romans under the command of Emperor Claudius. It is very possible, considering the similarities, that Arvirargus is the same person as Caratacus, also listed as a son of Cymbeline.

Following his older brother's death, Arvirargus took the armour of Guiderius and led the army of the Britons against the Romans. When he learned that Claudius and his commander, Hamo, had fled into the woods, Arvirargus followed him until they reached the coast. The Britons killed Hamo as he was trying to flee onto a ship and the place was named Southampton since that day. Claudius was able to reassemble his troops elsewhere and he besieged Portchester until it fell to his forces.

Following Hamo's death, Arvirargus sought refuge at Winchester but Claudius followed him there with his army. Following a siege, the Britons fled the city and attacked the Romans but Claudius halted the attack in exchange for a treaty. In exchange for peace and tribute with Rome, Claudius offered Arvirargus his own daughter in marriage. They accepted each other's terms and Arvirargus aided Claudius in subduing the Orkneys and other northern lands.

In the following spring, Arvirargus wed Claudius's daughter, Genvissa, and named the city of Gloucester after her. Following the wedding, Claudius left Britain in the control of Arvirargus. In the years following Claudius' departure, Arvirargus rebuilt the cities that had been ruined and became feared by his neighbours. This caused him to halt his tribute to Rome forcing Claudius to send Vespasian with an army to Britain. As Vespasian prepared to land, such a large Briton force stood ready that he fled to another port, Totnes, where he set up camp.

Once a base was established, he marched to Exeter and besieged the city. Arvirargus met him in battle there and the fight was stalemated. The following morning, Queen Genvissa mediated peace between the two foes. Vespasian returned to Rome and Arvirargus ruled the country peacefully for some years. When he finally died, he was buried in Gloucester, the city he had built with Claudius. He was succeeded by his son, Marius.

According to Hardynge's Chronicle (AD 1378-1465), Arviragus was asked to meet with Joseph of Arimathea and company upon their arrival at Glastonbury. Moreover, according to they Domesday Survey Arviragus is recorded as having granted Joseph and his followers (as Judean refugees - "Quidam advanae-Culdich" which means roughly "certain Culdee strangers") twelve hides of land tax free, in Ynis-witrin or the Isle of Avalon. The Domesday Book also indicates that;

The Domus Dei, in the great monastery of Glastonbury, called the Secret of the Lord, this Glasonbury Church possesses, in its own villa XII hides of land which have never paid tax

William Malmsebury, wrote in 1126 C.E. that;

In the year of our Lord, 63, twelve holy missionaries, with Joseph of Arimathea (who had buried the Lord) at their head, came over to Britain, preaching the Incarnation of Jesus Christ. The king (Arviragus) of the country and his subjects refused initially to become proselytes to his teaching, but in consideration that they had come a long journey, and being pleased with their soberness of life and unexceptional behaviour, the king, at their petition, gave them for their habitation a certain island bordering on his region, covered with trees and bramble bushes and surrounded by marshes, called Ynis-wytrin.

Though Arviragus did not initially become a Christian upon meeting Joseph of Arimathea, there is evidence that he may have later been converted to Joseph's faith as his historical counterpart Caratacus, is described as a "barbarian Christian" by Dio Cassius (Epitome of Book LXI, 33:3c [1]).

 

3. Genvissa of Britain QUEEN OF BRITAIN was the daughter of Tiberius Claudius Nero EMPEROR OF ROME and Julia Agrippina Minor of Rome.

 

This link has as the source for its claims the writings of Geoffrey of Monmouth. Earlier sources do not mention her.

The citing is as follows:

He (Claudius) therefore proposed peace to him (Arvirargus), promising to give him his own daughter, if only he would recognize that the kingdom of Britain was under the sway of Rome. His nobles persuaded Arvirargus to abandon his plans for battle and to accept the proposals of Claudius. Their argument was that it could be no disgrace for him to submit to the Romans, since they were the acknowledged overlords of the whole world. Arvirargus was swayed by these arguments and by others of a similar nature. He accepted their advice and submitted to Claudius. Claudius soon sent to Rome for his daughter. With the help of Arvirargus he subdued the Orkneys and the other islands in that neighbourhood.

At the end of that winter the messengers returned with Claudius' daughter and handed her over to her father. The girl's name was Genvissa (= Genuissa). Her beauty was such that everyone who saw her was filled with admiration. Once she had been united with him in lawful marriage, she inflamed the King with such burning passion that he preferred her company to anything else in the world. As a result of this Arvirargus made up his mind to give some special mark of distinction to the place where he had married her. He suggested to Claudius that the two of them should found there a city which should perpetuate in times to come the memory of so happy a marriage. Claudius agreed and ordered a town to be built which should be called Kaerglou or Gloucester. Down to our own day it retains its site on the bank of the Severn, between Wales and Loegria. Some, however, say that it took its name from Duke Gloius, whom Claudius fathered in that city and to whom he granted control of the duchy of the Welsh after Arvirargus.

 

Gweirydd of Siluria KING OF BRITAIN and Genvissa of Britain QUEEN OF BRITAIN had the following children:

 

1

Marius of Siluria "Meurig" KING OF BRITAIN ( -c. 125)

Third Generation

4. Cymbeline KING OF THE CATUVELLAUNI has few details recorded about him.

 

(Cunobelinus Pendragon). Cunobelinus (also written Kynobellinus, Cunobelin) (late 1st century BCE - 40s CE) was a historical king of the Catuvellauni tribe of pre-Roman Britain. He also appears in British legend as Cymbeline or Kymbeline (inspiration for William Shakespeare's romance, Cymbeline), and in Welsh, Kynvelyn or Cynfelyn. His name means "hound of (the god) Belenus" or "shining hound".

History:

Cunobelinus's name is known from passing mentions by classical historians Suetonius and Dio Cassius, but most of what we know of his life can only be pieced together from numismatic evidence.

He appears to have taken power in or around 9 AD from his father, Tasciovanus, who had conquered the neighbouring Trinovantes. The combined kingdom was ruled from the former Trinovantian capital, Camulodunum (Colchester), also some coins continued to be minted from Tasciovanus's former capital, Verulamium (St Albans).

He had three notable sons, Adminius, Togodumnus and Caratacus, and a brother, Epaticcus.

Epaticcus expanded his influence into the territory of the Atrebates in the early 20s AD, taking the Atrebatan capital Calleva (Silchester) by about 25. He continued to expand his territory until his death in about 35, when his nephew Caratacus took over from him and the Atrebates recovered some of their territory.

Adminius, judging by his coins, had control of Kent by this time. Suetonius tells us that in ca. 40 he was banished from Britain by his father and sought refuge with the Roman emperor Caligula; Caligula treated this as if the entire island had submitted to him. Other historians tells us that Caligula prepared an invasion of Britain, but abandoned it in farcical circumstances, ordering his soldiers to attack the waves and gather seashells as the spoils of victory.

Cunobelinus died some time before 43. Caratacus completed the conquest of the Atrebates, and their king, Verica, fled to Rome, providing the new emperor, Claudius, with a pretext for the conquest of Britain. Caratacus and Togodumnus led the initial resistance to the invasion.

Legend:

Cymbeline was a legendary king of the Britons as accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. He was the son of King Tenvantius.

Geoffrey writes in his Historia Regum Britanniae that Cymbeline was a powerful warrior raised in the courts of Emperor Augustus and his country was equipped with Roman weapons. It continues further stating that Cymbeline was very friendly with the Roman court and all tributes to Rome were paid out of respect, not out of requirement. He had two sons, Guiderius, who succeeded him, and Arvirargus.

A genealogy preserved in the medieval Welsh manuscript Harleian 3859 contains three generations which read "Caratauc map Cinbelin map Teuhant". This is the equivalent of "Caratacus, son of Cunobelinus, son of Tasciovanus", putting the three historical figures in the correct order, although the wrong historical context, the degree of linguistic change suggesting a long period of oral transmission. The remainder of the genealogy contains the names of a sequence of Roman emperors, and two Welsh mythological figures, Guidgen (Gwydion) and Lou (Llew).

Cunobelin's name lives on in England today. The group of villages in Buckinghamshire called the Kimbles are named after him.

 

Cymbeline KING OF THE CATUVELLAUNI had the following children:

 

Guiderius KING OF CATUVELLAUNI ( - )

2

Gweirydd of Siluria KING OF BRITAIN ( - )

 

5. Tiberius Claudius Nero EMPEROR OF ROME, son of Nero Claudius Germanicus Drusus and Antonia Minor of Rome, was born in 0010 B.C. He died on [Julian] 13 October 0054. He married Valeria MESSALINA. He married Julia Agrippina Minor of Rome.

 

Roman emperor AD 41-54, the son of Drusus and Antonia, nephew of the emperor Tiberius, and grandson of Livia Drusilla, the wife of Augustus, was born at Lugdunum (Lyons) on the 1st of August 10 BC. During his boyhood he was treated with contempt, owing to his weak and timid character and his natural infirmities; the fact that he was regarded as little better than an imbecile saved him from death at the hands of Caligula. He chiefly devoted himself to literature, especially history, and until his accession he took no real part in public affairs, though Caligula honored him with the dignity of consul. He was four times married: to Plautia Urgulanilla, whom he divorced because he suspected her of designs against his life; to Aelia Petina, also divorced; to the infamous Valeria Messallina; and to his niece Agrippina.

In AD 41, on the murder of Caligula, Claudius was seized by the praetorians, and declared emperor. The senate, which had entertained the idea of restoring the republic, was obliged to acquiesce. One of Claudius's first acts was to proclaim an amnesty for all except Cassius Chaerea, the assassin of his predecessor, and one or two others. After the discovery of a conspiracy against his life in 42, he fell completely under the influence of Messallina and his favorite freedmen Pallas and Narcissus, who must be held responsible for acts of cruelty which have brought undeserved odium upon the emperor. There is no doubt that Claudius was a liberal-minded man of kindly nature, anxious for the welfare of his people. Humane regulations were made in regard to freedmen, slaves, widows and orphans; the police system was admirably organized; commerce was put on a sound footing; the provinces were governed in a spirit of liberality; the rights of citizens and admission to the senate were extended to communities outside Italy. The speech of Claudius delivered (in the year 48) in the senate in support of the petition of the Aeduans that their senators should have the jus petendorum honorum (claim of admission to the senate and magistracies) at Rome has been partly preserved on the fragment of a bronze tablet found at Lyons in 1524; an imperial edict concerning the citizenship of the Anaunians (15th of March 46) was found in the southern Tirol in 1869. Claudius was especially fond of building. He completed the great aqueduct (Aqua Claudia) begun by Caligula, drained the Locus Fucinus, and built the harbor of Ostia. Nor were his military operations unsuccessful. Mauretania was made a Roman province; the conquest of Britain was begun; his distinguished general Domitius Corbulo gained considerable successes in Germany and the East. The intrigues of Narcissus caused Messallina to be put to death by order of Claudius, who took as his fourth wife his niece Agrippina, a woman as criminal as any of her predecessors. She prevailed upon him to set aside his own son Britannicus in favour of Nero, her son by a former marriage; and in 54, to make Nero's position secure, she put the emperor to death by poison. The apotheosis of Claudius was the subject of a lampoon by Seneca called apokolokyntosis, the "pumpkinification" of Claudius.

Claudius was a prolific writer, chiefly on history, but his works are lost. He wrote (in Greek) a history of Carthage and a history of Etruria: (in Latin) a history of Rome from the death of Julius Caesar, an autobiography, and an essay in defense of Cicero against the attacks of Asinius Gallus. He also introduced three new letters into the Latin alphabet, none of which survived -- one for consonantal V, one for BS and PS, and one for the intermediate sound between I and U.

 

6. Julia Agrippina Minor of Rome was the daughter of Germanicus Caesar of Rome and Vipsania Agrippina Major of Rome. She and Tiberius Claudius Nero EMPEROR OF ROME had the following children:

 

3

Genvissa of Britain QUEEN OF BRITAIN ( - )

Nero EMPEROR OF ROME ( - )