Cymbeline KING OF THE CATUVELLAUNI ( - )

1. Cymbeline KING OF THE CATUVELLAUNI has few details recorded about him.

 

(Cunobelinus Pendragon). Cunobelinus (also written Kynobellinus, Cunobelin) (late 1st century BCE - 40s CE) was a historical king of the Catuvellauni tribe of pre-Roman Britain. He also appears in British legend as Cymbeline or Kymbeline (inspiration for William Shakespeare's romance, Cymbeline), and in Welsh, Kynvelyn or Cynfelyn. His name means "hound of (the god) Belenus" or "shining hound".

History:

Cunobelinus's name is known from passing mentions by classical historians Suetonius and Dio Cassius, but most of what we know of his life can only be pieced together from numismatic evidence.

He appears to have taken power in or around 9 AD from his father, Tasciovanus, who had conquered the neighbouring Trinovantes. The combined kingdom was ruled from the former Trinovantian capital, Camulodunum (Colchester), also some coins continued to be minted from Tasciovanus's former capital, Verulamium (St Albans).

He had three notable sons, Adminius, Togodumnus and Caratacus, and a brother, Epaticcus.

Epaticcus expanded his influence into the territory of the Atrebates in the early 20s AD, taking the Atrebatan capital Calleva (Silchester) by about 25. He continued to expand his territory until his death in about 35, when his nephew Caratacus took over from him and the Atrebates recovered some of their territory.

Adminius, judging by his coins, had control of Kent by this time. Suetonius tells us that in ca. 40 he was banished from Britain by his father and sought refuge with the Roman emperor Caligula; Caligula treated this as if the entire island had submitted to him. Other historians tells us that Caligula prepared an invasion of Britain, but abandoned it in farcical circumstances, ordering his soldiers to attack the waves and gather seashells as the spoils of victory.

Cunobelinus died some time before 43. Caratacus completed the conquest of the Atrebates, and their king, Verica, fled to Rome, providing the new emperor, Claudius, with a pretext for the conquest of Britain. Caratacus and Togodumnus led the initial resistance to the invasion.

Legend:

Cymbeline was a legendary king of the Britons as accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. He was the son of King Tenvantius.

Geoffrey writes in his Historia Regum Britanniae that Cymbeline was a powerful warrior raised in the courts of Emperor Augustus and his country was equipped with Roman weapons. It continues further stating that Cymbeline was very friendly with the Roman court and all tributes to Rome were paid out of respect, not out of requirement. He had two sons, Guiderius, who succeeded him, and Arvirargus.

A genealogy preserved in the medieval Welsh manuscript Harleian 3859 contains three generations which read "Caratauc map Cinbelin map Teuhant". This is the equivalent of "Caratacus, son of Cunobelinus, son of Tasciovanus", putting the three historical figures in the correct order, although the wrong historical context, the degree of linguistic change suggesting a long period of oral transmission. The remainder of the genealogy contains the names of a sequence of Roman emperors, and two Welsh mythological figures, Guidgen (Gwydion) and Lou (Llew).

Cunobelin's name lives on in England today. The group of villages in Buckinghamshire called the Kimbles are named after him.

 

Cymbeline KING OF THE CATUVELLAUNI had the following children:

 

Guiderius KING OF CATUVELLAUNI ( - )

Gweirydd of Siluria KING OF BRITAIN ( - )