See also

Elizabeth MURRAY ( - )

1. Elizabeth Jane MURRAY, daughter of Pulteney MURRAY (1807-1875) and Elizabeth UNK ( -1898), died in USA. She married Michael MCCARTHY.

Second Generation

2. Pulteney MURRAY, son of Major General James Patrick 2 MURRAY and Elizabeth RUSHWORTH, was born on 9 July 1807 in Galway, Ireland. He was born in 1807 in Perth. He was baptised on 20 December 1809 in Freshwater Church. He was a Major in the Army + Sub Inspector of the Royal Irish Constabulary. He had 1 child. He married Jane MACKENNY on 23 May 1848. He died on 20 September 1875 in Galway. He married Elizabeth UNK.

 

According to Pulteney's great great niece Pamela Churcher he was known to the family as the man who should have been, but never was, "the third General". This referred to the military success of his father and grandfather, the military traditions of the Murray family, and the disappointment with Pulteney's lack of success in this field. What Pulteney did after he left the army is unknown - it was not thought worth recording by the family, who could only think that he had failed by not remaining a military man.

Pulteney was probably named after Lt. General Sir J. Pulteney, to whom Pulteney's father served when Lt. Gen. Pulteney was Aide de Camp in the 9th Regiment around 1800.



Pulteney Murray was born on 9th July 1807, the third of twelve children of James Patrick Murray and Elizabeth nee Rushworth, the latter from an important and influential Isle of Wight family. The couple had met when James Patrick Murray had been stationed there as a young man. Pulteney was named after Sir James Pulteney (later Sir James Pulteney Murray), whose aid-de-camp James Patrick had been during the British campaign in North Holland a few years earlier, and who had played an important role in the furtherarance of James Patrick’s early career. James Patrick had recently resumed his military career after a short stint (seven weeks, actually) as an MP, a position obtained through his wife’s family connections: James Patrick’s second thoughts about army life were later to be mirrored in Pulteney’s abandonment of his military career shortly before his 29th birthday, a decision that resulted in the disapproval and censure of his family – his descendants learned about him as the Murray who didn’t become a general as had his father and grandfather, and the family records contained almost nothing about him, as if he were better forgotten.

Pulteney’s birth occurred at a time of big political upheavals in Ireland, especially with the Act of Union of 1801, which had brought about the end of Ireland as an independent country, forbidden Catholics (most indigenous Irish) from holding any public office, made the Anglican church the state religion and banned any free trade between Britain and Ireland bringing about a virtually total stranglehold of Ireland by Britain. Also, before the Act of Union, in 1798, there had been a (failed) uprising in support of Catholic Emancipation. Pulteney’s future life was very much shaped by these events, both in his early career in the army, before he went to the West Indies, and later, for the majority of his working life as a middle ranking officer with the newly-formed Royal Irish Constabulary, generally considered to be the world’s first police force, in the modern sense of the word. Pulteney’s work could broadly be said to be part of the vast British machine for subduing the Irish nation. In this context it is interesting to note that Pulteney converted to Catholicism on his death bed; this decision would have been coloured by the whole English/Irish issue, the relations between the two countries, the unequal power struggle between the two, and the matter of where Pulteney saw himself in relation to these political issues - in other words, did Pulteney finally decide that he wanted to be identified as Irish rather than British, did he actually change his religious views, did he make a token change to please his wife, or did he change because he knew that life for his wife and children would be easier in an Irish context if their late father/husband had been a Catholic?

Early Childhood

One of the first mentions of Pulteney is in one of a series of letters written by his father to his mother, when he was about two years old. From the letters comes an overriding sense of homesickness on the part of James Patrick, and a great affection for his children whom he misses. We also learn of the hardships and instability of military life, where soldiers were sent from place to place with almost no notice, and almost anywhere in the world. We also learn of the difficulties that Elizabeth had. She was bringing up three (later twelve) children with an absent husband, living in a place where she had no roots or friends, and also forced to move frequently on account of her husband’s career – Catherine, their first child, was born in Banagher, James, their second, in Tipperary, and Pulteney in Galway. “God Almighty bless, preserve and protect you, my dear Catherine, James and little Pulteney, and kiss them all a thousand thousand times for me and believe me to be ever your most sincerely and truly affectionate husband.” This, and countless other very emotional expressions of affection, testify to his longing for home and real love for his family.

At the age of three, Pulteney experienced the tragedy of his father losing the use of his right arm in the battle of Douro in Portugal, in a campaign run by Arthur Wellesley, future Duke of Wellington. Could the remembrance, at such a young age, of seeing his father return home with a completely shattered arm have influenced his later decision to leave the army? James Patrick, however, continued undaunted with his military life, though not to the same extent as might have been, in charge of the 5th Garrison Battalion (a veteran’s battalion rather than a proper regiment). Yet for his service and undoubted qualities, he was eventually made a major general and created a Companion of the Bath (on the first occasion that that honour was given). So Pulteney, like his numerous siblings, was brought up in a distinctly military ambience, and naturally sought to join the army himself at the earliest age, like the rest of his brothers: of the six of them, three (James, Pulteney and Charles), subsequently had army careers, two (James and George Don) had navy careers, and it is not known want Henry Patrick did. However, the shortness of their lives bears eloquent witness to the hardships of the military life in those days. James died at 28, Charles 34, Henry 36, Douglas 42 and George 31. Pulteney alone, having left the army at the tender age of 29 and joined the Royal Irish Constabulary, in which he served for the rest of his life, lived beyond 50, dying at the (for then) respectable age of 68. In contrast, all but one of his sisters lived to a good old age, with two of them (Catherine and Elizabeth) living until 91 and 87 years respectively! Actually, this was not entirely usual for these times, as often it was the women (as, in all likelihood, Pulteney’s first wife Jane) who died young in childbirth.

Pulteney’s childhood was characterized by the constant growing in size of his family. As the third of twelve children, the last of whom was born when he was nineteen, he cannot have had a great deal of individual attention: maybe he longed for his childhood again, when he was adored as “pretty Pulteney” and when his family had such high hopes for him to follow in the family line.

The Army

It is not known where Pulteney went to school, but at the age of seventeen he joined the army, becoming an Ensign with the 36th Foot. In 1826 he joined the 36th Foot (with purchase) as a lieutenant, in 1830 became a captain, and, when he sold his commission and left the army in May 1836, was a major. His rise had been steady rather than meteoric, but the ten or so years he had in the army had taken him to most parts of Ireland, Gibraltar, Barbados, Spike Island, St. Kitts, St. Christopher, Antigua and St. Lucia.

A personal connection enabled Pulteney to join the 36th Foot: General George Don was a friend of Pulteney’s father and in fact was responsible for a series of paintings of the latter which still exist in the family, showing James Patrick, with his identifying injured arm, with his regiment. In fact, James Patrick’s 12th child was christened George Don Murray, with General George Don himself acting as sponsor (godfather) and the then 19-year old Pulteney acting as the other sponsor - clearly the family were by that time finding it hard to find sponsors for such a large family. Spike Island, just off the coast at Cork, where Pulteney was stationed with his regiment in 1830, was used as the British Arsenal at the time. During the following decade it became a centre for convicts prior to their departation to Australia and other places. Pulteney also spent time in Fermoy, which was the principal British military base in Co. Cork (In 1806 the first permanent barracks had been built there providing accommodation for 112 officers and 1478 men, as well as 24 cavalry officers, 120 cavalry men and 112 horses). At this time, only 42% of the army in Ireland were Irish, and in fact this reduced in the next thirty years to only 25% - the army was serving British interests. For men (as opposed to officers) in the army, life was very bleak. Marriage was strongly discouraged, and could only take place with the permission of the commanding officer, and in only a few cases would a wife be given permission to be with her husband; in all other cases the army did not even acknowledge the existence of wife or family. Living conditions were sqaulid and cramped, food was bad and insufficient, pay was poor and sanitation almost non-existent (for example, soldiers were expected to wash in their own urine tub). Once a soldier had paid the necessary costs of living and feeding from their pay there was usually little to nothing remaining. It is a little puzzling to wonder why there was a need for the formation of a Royal Commission in 1860 to consider why the army had a recruitment problem!! Life was somewhat better for officers, who were drawn from the upper classes exclusively, through the system of “purchase”. This system ensured the continuation of the “old boy network” but ensured the absolute loyalty of the armed forces, because they were drawn from the ruling classes; the system of purchase of rank did not disappear from the army until the end of the century, and not without a lot of resistance.

Conditions for the Irish civilians were even worse - a visitor to Ireland in the early nineteenth century declared: “now I have seen Ireland, it seems to me that hte poorest among the Letts, Estonians and Finlanders lead a life of comparative luxury”. Even the Duke of Wellington said “There never was a country in which poverty existed to the extent that it exists in Ireland”. The population at this time was growing fast, which was connected to the influence of the Catholic church, and the potato became more and more the staple on which ordinary Irish depended; however, the potato crops were often blighted, leading to hunger and shortages, culminating in the famous and catastrophic famine of 1845. British treatment of the Irish was justified by their view of them as lesser human beings than the Anglo-Saxons. In fact, later in the century, when Darwinian views were hijacked by racial supremacists, pseudo-scientific theories abounded about the Irish being “white negros”, which view reveals the double prejudice against both black and Irish. Pulteney grew up with this background, and would have viewed, along with his British contemporaries, his task as that of controlling the Irish, and would not have encountered views discussing their rights.

From 1832 to about 1836 Pulteney was with his regiment in the West Indies. By this time, it should be noted that Sir George Don had retired from the regiment. One of the places visited by the regiment was Antigua. Here is a description of the Antigua of 1832, the year Pulteney was there: “In 1832, there were exported from the colony equal to 11,010 hogsheads of sugar, 7342 puncheons of molasses, and 1238 puncheons of rum. A considerable quantity of cotton was formerly produced, but its cultivation is now discontinued. Two descriptions of soil are prevalent in the island: one a rich black mould on a substratum of clay, the other a stiff clay on a substratum of marl, which is not so fertile a* the former description of soil. It contains a large proportion of level land, and is not in any part mountainous. The shore is in general rocky, and surrounded by dangerous reefs, which make it difficult to approach, but there are several excellent harbours, in one of which—English Harbour, situated on the south side of the island—is a dock-yard belonging to government, with every convenience for careening and repairing vessels: this harbour is capable of receiving the largest ships in the British navy, and here, during the war, the king's ships on the West India station were usually moored during the hurricane mouths.” What the description does not mention is the matter of slavery, and how the British Army’s role was to protect the huge trade made possible by the free labour provided by the slaves. “In Antigua/Barbuda slavery was abolished in 1834 but it did not “free” the slaves as we understand freedom today, Antiguans continued to be scarred from the colonial experience. Emancipation perpetrated further the hierarchy of colour and race that the British had established at the start of the colonial period. Stringent Acts were passed to ensure that the planters had a constant labour supply”
[http://www.antiguamuseums.org/Historical.htm]. Much of the British Army’s role in the West Indies in the first half of the nineteenth century was to protect the islands and their trade from the French, with whom there were many military and naval encounters. St. Lucia, another place that Pulteney went with his regiment, had been alternately French and British for many years until finally it became permanently British in 1815. In 1836 Pulteney left the army. It is not known whether he came back to Ireland with the regiment first, or whether he stayed in the West Indies until the end of his commission; in any case, it is possibly significant that he left the army just over a year after the tragic and untimely death of his father: perhaps the event made him realize that he was not made for a life in the army; perhaps his father’s death made him wish to return to Ireland and a more settled life; this wish might have been prompted by a wish to be there for his siblings and mother, or simply because he desired it for himself. However, the next chapter of his life, with the newly formed Royal Irish Constabulary, was far from settled, although it did mean that he stayed in Ireland.

Paradoxically, four years after Pulteney left the army, his younger brother (by 17 years) Douglas Alexander Murray was being helped by his by then destitute and desperate mother Elizabeth to join the army. She and Douglas were both writing to everyone she knew in influential circles within the army, using her late husband and late husband’s father’s reputations to beg for a commission for Douglas without purchase (because the family had no money). Finally, in 1841, this was granted, and Douglas started in the .... The letters Elizabeth and Douglas wrote, and their replies, are held in the National Archives in Kew, and provide a poignant reminder of the position of the families of soldiers who have died, and how little help they got from the army. Elizabeth also mentions her oldest son, who had joined the navy, and who had died, and whose wife had also died, leaving their children in her care. “Five years ago he was deprived, by death, of his father who lost his life in consequence of a cold taken in the vain attempt to save the lives of two officers of the Royal Regiment...” One wonders what the effect on his mother was of Pulteney leaving the army, when she had to go to such inordinate lengths of begging to ensure a place in it for her younger son? And one wonders where Pulteney was in all this. It is not entirely clear from the records when Pulteney started with the RIC: his record notes that he was appointed on 11 March 1842 at the age of 30. Actually he would have been 35 at this time. There is further no record of what he did between 1836, when he sold his commission in the army, and 1842: did he undergo training, did he do nothing, or did he do something else; or was the date 1842 incorrect but the age 30 correct, in which case there would have been little or no gap between the two careers.


The Royal Irish Constabulary

A short time after leaving the army Pulteney joined the Royal Irish Constabulary; it seems likely he had a training as a cadet first, and was then posted to the first of six places, Sligo, for a period of just under a year. After this he spent the next six years in Tyrone, then, after a couple of years at Kings, eight and a half years in Westmeath (near to the place where he was brought up), and then finally, after a couple of months at Queens, finished his career in Galway.

Early on in his career with the RIC Pulteney got into a fair amount of trouble. For example, the records show that in 1843 he was “suspended from rank and pay”, though the reason is not given. At this time Pulteney was still a single man. More interestingly, the second half of 1850 was clearly a bad one for Pulteney. In August he was “admonished” (again no reason is stated), in November he is “reported for debt” and again, in the same month, receives an “expression of displeasure for neglecting to patrol at night”. What is most odd is that Pulteney had at this time been married for only two years, to Jane (neé McKenny), about whom nothing is known, and that they had a one-year-old baby, Pulteney Henry. Were the family in genuine hardship, was family life just too much for Pulteney, or did he drink; maybe his wife Jane, who was to die in less than a year, was already ill, and Pulteney could not face it, or did his actions precipitate her ill-health?

After Jane’s death, little Pulteney Henry was sent to live with his Aunt Donny, and it seems likely that Pulteney had no further part in his upbringing. Sadly, he is not even mentioned in his father’s will, made after he had remarried. Pulteney Henry’s descendants, who thorougly documented the family tree and history, pointedly omitted any reference to Pulteney’s second wife, Elizabeth, who was from Tyrone, which is just about all that is known about her. Pulteney and Elizabeth had three children, Georgina Emily, James Alexander and Elizabeth Jane: this is the order in which they are listed in Pulteney’s will, and so is likely to be in chronological order of age.

Despite Pulteney’s earlier admonishments from his superiors in the Royal Irish Constabulary, he was, on 15th Jue 1869, granted good service pay; on retirement he was discharged with an annual pension of £180 and a lump sum of £38. He had risen gradually through the ranks of RIC officers, being made a 3rd sub-inspector in March 1842, second sub-inspector in July 1848 and first sub-inspector in April 1858.

Conclusion

It is interesting to note that Elizabeth, at the time of her death in 1898 is stated as being “of Rose Lodge”; yet Pulteney, at his death twenty years earlier is stated as being “of Wood Quay, formerly of Rose Lodge”. This seems to imply that the couple separated, unless Elizabeth moved away from Rose Lodge with Pulteney, but moved back after his death.

Another document exists which is supplemental to Pulteney Murray’s will, and which dates from 1898, just after Elizabeth’s death. This states that the will was not administered, or at least not fully administered, after Pulteney’s death, and provides for the remaining £1350 left by him to be divided between his two daughters “in the United States”. It also gives the names of their respective husbands, Colman Flaridy (who married Georgina), and Michael McCarthy (who married Elizabeth Jane). The questions remain as to why the money was not released earlier, and also what happened to James Alexander Murray, their brother.





 

36th (Herefordshire) Regt. of Foot

Regimental Notes: Born at Perth on 9 July 1807. 5 April 1825 Ens 36th Ft without purchase. Taken on Depot strength at IOW in Apr 1825, on leave. Shown in May 1825 to Half-Pay List Infantry unattached; however in the 1st Battalion return (Feb 1826) after its return to England he is shown as on leave (private affairs) from 8 April 1825 to 24th May 1826 by permission of C in C so the HP unattached list probably wrong. An entry elsewhere shows him in Gibraltar from 5 June 1825 to 3 May 1826. He joined Bn in May 1826 in England. - 29th August 1826 Lieutenant 36th Ft with purchase. - Moved to Ireland (Mullingar) with Bn in Apr 1827, Dublin (Sep) Philipston (May 1828), Limerick (Oct). Birr (Aug 1829), Banagher (Feb 1830), Birr (Apr), Fermoy (Jun). Stayed with his Coy at Fermoy, as part of Depot, when Bn (6 service Coys) sailed for Barbados in Oct 1830. 31 Aug 1830 Capt. 36th Foot, with purchase. - Still with Depot in Dec. 1830 at Spike Island - Took draft to Bn in Barbados on 29 Dec 1831 arrived Feb 1832, St Kitts (Feb 1833), St Christopher (Mar), Antigua (Jul), St. Lucia (Nov), until he retired on 6 May 1836 by sale of his commission.

He was a Major on retirement.

From: Historical Record of the 36th, or the Herefordshire Regiment of Foot [eyre & Spottiswoode, 1853]
(whilst Pulteney Murray was serving in the regiment)

On the lst of February 1823, the detachment which was stationed at Cerigo arrived at Corfu, and joined the headquarters of the regiment.

In the year 1825, the establishment of the regiment was augmented from eight to ten companies, and formed into six service and four depot companies, consisting of forty-two serjeants, fourteen drummers, and seven hundred and forty rank and file.

The regiment remained in the Ionian Islands until the 2d of December 1825, when it embarked at Santa Maura for England.

On the 18th of February 1826, the regiment disembarked at Chatham; in the spring it proceeded to Colchester, afterwards to Macclesfield, Stockport, Manchester, and Bolton.

During the early part of the year 1827, the regiment remained at Bolton, in Lancashire, and in April it proceeded to Liverpool, from which place it embarked for Ireland on the 14th of that month. The regiment arrived at Dublin on the following day, proceeded from thence to Mullingar, and returned to Dublin in August following, where it was stationed during the remainder of the year.

In May 1828, the regiment proceeded from Dublin to Naas, and in October it was removed to Limerick.

The regiment remained at Limerick until August 1829, when it proceeded to Birr, and continued during the rest of the year at that station. Lieut.-General Sir Roger Hale Sheaffe, Bart, was appointed Colonel of the THIRTY-SIXTH regiment on the 21st of December 1829, in succession to General Sir George Don, G.C.B. and G.C.H., removed to the Third foot, or the Buffs.

In June 1830, the THIRTY-SIXTH regiment proceeded from Birr to Fermoy, and was formed into six service and four depot companies. The service companies embarked at Cork on the 11th, 13th, and 14th of October for the West Indies. The depot companies remained at Fermoy for a short time, and were afterwards stationed at Spike Island. The service companies disembarked at Barbadoes on the 20th, 21st, and 28th of November.

The service companies suffered severely during the great hurricane in Barbadoes in 1831, having eleven men killed, and several severely injured.

The depot companies were removed from Spike Island to Charles Fort, Kinsale, in October 1831, and continued there during 1832.

The service companies which had, since their arrival in the West Indies, remained at Barbadoes, were removed to Antigua in February 1833. The depot companies proceeded from Charles Fort to Ballincollig in January 1833; to Cork in February; to Templemore in August, and to Nenagh in October following.

During the year 1834, the service companies remained at Antigua. The depot companies were removed in October from Nenagh to Limerick.

In November 1835 the service companies proceeded from Antigua to St. Lucia. The depot companies quitted Limerick for Galway in May 1835, and marched for Cork in June following, where they embarked for Plymouth on the '14th of September; during the remainder of the year they were stationed at Devonport.

During the year 1836, the service companies remained at St. Lucia, and the depot at Devonport.

In February 1837 the service companies proceeded from St. Lucia to Barbadoes. The depot companies were removed from Devonport to Kinsale in June 1838. On the 10th of November 1838, the service companies embarked at Barbadoes for Nova Scotia, and arrived at Halifax on the 8th of December.

 



From Pulteney's will it is now known that he lived first at Rose Lodge, Spiddal/Spiddle and subsequently moved to Wood Quay, Galway, and that he worked as a sub inspector in the Royal Irish Constabulary. It is also now known that he remarried and had two daughters and one son; both duaghters subsequently moved to the United States. It is interesting to note that the family of his first wife made no record of Pulteney's remarriage and the children therefrom, despite thorough records otherwise being kept.

Furthermore, although no record has yet been found of the birth dates of the three children, the order given here is the order given in Pulteney's will. Given that the son is listed in the middle, it is more than possible that the order is that of age. In addition, when the will was properly administered in August 1898 (obviously some unfinished business in 1875), on the occasion of the death of Pulteney's wife Elizabeth, James Alexander Murray (Pulteney's son) was not mentioned, perhaps impyling that he had died. It is also worth noting that Pulteney's will makes no provision whatsoever for his son by his first marriage, Pulteney Henry Murray.

Lastly, in 1895, at her death, Elizabeth Murray is stated as being "of Rose Lodge", and yet her late husband Pulteney, at his death in 1875, was said to be "of Wood Quay, formerly of Rose Lodge", seeming to imply that the couple had separated before his death.

The question remains why the will was not administered in 1875, but had to wait a full twenty years, when the two daughters in America laid claim to the relatively small sum of £1350 left by Pulteney (that part of the will which was left unadminstered until 1898).

 

Notes on the Royal Irish Constabulary, in which Pulteney Murray pursued a career after leaving the army.

The first organised police force in Ireland came about through the Peace Preservation Act of 1814 but the Irish Constabulary Act of 1822 marked the true beginning of the Irish Constabulary. Among its first duties was the forcible seizure of tithes during the "Tithe War" on behalf of the Anglican clergy from the mainly Catholic population as well as the Presbyterian minority. The act established a force in each barony with chief constables and inspectors general under the control of the civil administration at Dublin Castle. By 1841 this force numbered over 8,600 men. The force had been rationalised and reorganised in an 1836 act and the first constabulary code of regulations was published in 1837. The discipline was tough and the pay poor. The police also faced unrest among the Irish rural poor, manifested in organisations like the Ribbonmen, which attacked landlords and their property.

The new constabulary demonstrated their efficiency against Irish separatism with the putting down of the Young Ireland uprising led by William Smith O'Brien in 1848. There then followed a spell of relative calm. However, the Irish Republican Brotherhood, founded in 1858, planned an armed uprising against British rule. This rose into direct action in with the Fenian Rising of 1867, marked by attacks on the more isolated police stations. This rebellion was also put down fairly easily, as the police had infiltrated the Fenians with spies and informers. The loyalty of the constabulary during the rising was rewarded by Queen Victoria granting the force the prefix 'royal' and the right to use the insignia of the Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick. The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) presided over a marked decline in crime in the country with the rural unrest of the early nineteenth century (characterised by secret organizations and crimes such as unlawful armed assembly) being replaced by relative misdemeanors such as public drunkenness and minor property crimes.

By 1836 this force had grown to around 5,000 men and by 1841 this had risen to a total of over 8,600. and from its inception the Irish constabulary was a barracked force. It was spread thinly throughout the country, with four or five policemen living in each barrack the norm.

Ireland in the first half of the nineteenth century was the pioneer for policing, acting almost as a laboratory for its development. With Irish society volatile, disordered and disorderly, the establishment of a uniformed, professional police force for the maintenance of law and order was an absolute necessity. It was the nature of collective violence and the weakness of previously existing forces for social control that led successive governments, from the early 1800's on, to press ahead with the establishment of a centrally controlled armed constabulary. The constabulary in Ireland served as a model for the establishment of a policing system in the rest of the British Isles, and ultimately even further afield in the developing colonies of the Empire. Throughout the 19th century the constabulary continued to develop as a police force. The evolution of the force was characterised by improvements in rank structure, training, and the rules and regulations governing the duties, conduct and discipline expected of the men. One of the most significant developments in the history of the constabulary during the 19th century was its redesignation as the Royal Irish Constabulary, making it the first 'Royal' police force in the British Empire.

Life in the constabulary during the 19th century could certainly, on occasions, be difficult. There was periodic agrarian unrest and constant simmering discontent in relation to the land question, particularly in the south and west. Indeed the dominant image of the R.I.C. for many people often stems from its responsibility to give protection to bailiffs executing distress warrants and evicting tenants, an unpleasant duty that was greatly disliked by members of the force (most of whom were themselves from a rural background). Nevertheless, the duties of the averagepoliceman were otherwise usually varied and uncontroversial.

These extensive civil and local government duties as well as routine patrolling in their districts ensured that the police constable was a very familiar part of daily life, someone with whom people would expect to have regular contact. It was the constable's job to acquire a thorough knowledge of his district and good relations with the local community made this easier. Indeed, good community relations, then as now, were essential for effective policing.

By the end of the 19th century there was a total of around 1,600 barracks dotted around the Irish countryside and some 11,000 constables. The territorial division of county and district on which the command structure had been based since the 1836 reorganization continued throughout the life of the R.I.C. Each county was supervised by a county inspector, with the counties sub-divided into a number of districts, each headed by a district inspector. They in turn were assisted by a head constable based at the district headquarters, on whom rested the main responsibility for operational policing and the conduct of the men in the barracks. There were a number of barracks in each district, usually with a sergeant and four constables.

The R.I.C. was characterised by a strict code of discipline. There was no official system of duty, rest days or annual leave, and in the interests of political impartiality members were even banned from voting at parliamentary elections. There were strict instructions laid down in police regulations concerning standards of conduct and appearance (for example, at one time police were absolutely prohibited from entering a public house socially). Other regulations were principally designed to maintain the standing of the police within the community. Members were forbidden to marry until they had at least seven years service and any potential bride had to be vetted by the constabulary authorities to ensure her social suitability. It was forbidden for policemen and their wives to sell produce, take lodgers or engage in certain forms of trade (for example, wives could be dressmakers but could not employ apprentices).

 

Jane MACKENNY and Pulteney MURRAY had the following children:

 

Pulteney Henry MURRAY (1849-1912). Pulteney was born on 17 November 1849 in Edenderry, Queens County, Ireland. He was a Colonel in the Army. He married Mary Leaycraft INGHAM on 20 January 1876 in Hammersmith Ch., London, England. He died on 15 September 1912 in "Mangroville", Paget, Bermuda. He died in November 1912.

 

3. Elizabeth UNK died on 4 January 1898. She and Pulteney MURRAY had the following children:

 

Georgina Emily MURRAY ( - ). Georgina died in USA.

James Alexander MURRAY ( - )

1

Elizabeth Jane MURRAY ( - )

Third Generation

4. Major General James Patrick 2 MURRAY, son of General Sir James Patrick 1 MURRAY Governor of Canada, Warden of the Cinque Ports, Governor of Hull and Ann WHITHAM, was born on 21 January 1782 in Leghorn. He was a Major-General in the Army. He married Elizabeth RUSHWORTH on 31 January 1803 in Freshwater, Isle of Wight. He died on 5 December 1834 in Killenure House, near Athlone.

 

James Patrick Murray was the eldest son of the Hon. General James Murray. He was born in Leghorn Italy while his father was Lt. Governor of Minorca. The British Garrison on Minorca was under siege from French and Spanish forces and his mother, the former Ann Witham, was evacuated from the island to safety as she was expecting his imminent birth. Italy was the nearest friendly country.

Cordelia, General James' first wife, had died on 16th June 1779. Quite soon afterwards,1st June 1780, he married Ann Witham, a girl of only 19, who had just lost her father, (Abraham Witham, H.M.Consul to the Island of Majorca). General James Murray was 51 years old at the time. Their first child Cordelia, (JPM's elder sister) was born in Majorca on 16th March 1781.

French and Spanish forces began the siege of Majorca on 17 August 1781 and 2 days afterwards it was decided that Mrs Murray, her baby daughter and two other officers' wives would be evacuated. The account of her escape, as told by her granddaughter in 1877, is as follows: -

"My grandmother and the wives of the officers of his staff made their escape in an open boat in the midst of the night. Through the presence of mind of my grandmother, the boat was enabled to pass through the French and Spanish fleets, she repeating the parole in the Spanish language with calmness and being, like the other ladies, wrapped in a large military cloaks".

Although we know that General Murray did manage to maintain some sort of communication with Leghorn, Ann must have been a pretty cool young lady if, with the baby girl in her arms and another child on the way, she managed all this and a 500 miles sea journey from Minorca to Leghorn in an open sailing boat.

According to Lady O'Donnel's account "soon after they landed at Leghorn, she was taken ill and when the little boy was born he was apparently dead, but his mother entreated that he should immediately be put into a warm bath. She had dreamt that he was born dead and that thus, through the mercy of God, he was restored to life".

It seems that after they arrived in Leghorn they moved in fairly high class circles. JPM's godfather was the Grand Duke of Tuscany who was the son of the Emperor Francis I and Maria Theresa, and the brother of Marie Antoinette. The Grand Duke himself became Holy Roman Emperor as Leopold II in 1790.

JPM was probably brought up at Beauport, his father's estate in Sussex, but there is no record of his schooling. His father died when he was only 12 years old in 1794. On Gen. James's death, part of the Beauport Estate reverted to the Collier family and part sold to provide for his widow and daughters. Like his father JPM was destined for an army career and at the age of 14, in 1796, he was commissioned Ensign in the 44th Regiment .

In 1797 he was promoted lieutenant and was employed on regimental duty until 17th May 1780. He was then appointed ADC (Aide de Camp) to General George Don (Maria Murray's husband) with whom he served until June 1799. He then joined his relation Lieutenant General Sir James Pulteney Murray and served as his ADC during the campaign in North Holland.

The French had invaded and overrun Holland, renaming it the Republic of Batavia. It was in this war that the Dutch fleet, lying frozen in the Zuider See, was captured by French cavalry. In 1799, Pitt decided that unless Britain made some gesture and opened up a second front, the Austrians would make a separate peace with France. He therefore made a pact with Russia that a joint expedition should be launched against the low countries, Britain to supply 30,000 troops and Russia 16,000. To ensure success the Grand Old Duke of York was made commander in chief and his three divisional commanders were Abercrombie, Pulteney and Dundas. In spite of an unfavourable report by Abercrombie, it was decided that the expedition should land in the Helder area and drive south to Amsterdam. Landing in the Helder was not very difficult, but the Russian contingent soon proved unreliable and the British got bogged down amongst the dykes and canals. So an armistice was arranged whereby both sides agreed to exchange prisoners and Britain evacuated her army.

Although, as a lieutenant, JPM cannot have played in important part in this campaign he certainly took part in several actions and according to reports, General Pulteney enhanced his reputation by the resource and skill which he displayed. JPM saw active service on the 27th August, the 10th & 19th of September, and the 2nd & 6th October 1799. Clearly he did quite well as he was appointed Commanding Officer of a company in the 9th Regiment on the 26th December 1799.

The following year Pitt decided to send an expedition to Ferrol in northern Spain. Raids such as these had earlier been described as ' breaking windows with guineas. General Pulteney was put in command and landed on the 25th August 1800. On the next day General Pulteney, having surveyed the fortress, held a staff conference and advised that it was far too strong to be assaulted with any chance of success, so he re-embarked his men. For his conduct he was the subject of a motion of censure in the House of Commons, in which Pitt spoke against him, but to which he replied vigorously and was finally exonerated. Murray had again accompanied him on this abortive expedition as his ADC.

At the Peace of Amiens in 1802 JPM was placed on half pay .
It was about this time that he went to the Isle of Wight . Why he gave up his military career at this point is a little bit of a mystery. When the Peace of Amiens was signed in 1802 he was aged 20, had already had some six years military service and must have decided to abandon a military career and take up politics. He may have become disenchanted with the idea of a military career , having seen unsuccessful commanders arraigned before Parliament or courts martial for lack of success. Austria had made peace with France, Napoleon had won the battles of Marengo and Hohenlinden, the war had reached a stalemate and people had begun to get war weary . Perhaps there was a vacant parliamentary seat going cheap at Yarmouth. Perhaps Edward Rushworth fixed him up, encouraged marriage to his daughter Elizabeth and even gave her some land at Farringford Hill for the couple to build themselves a home. In any case he married Elizabeth Rushworth, the daughter of Edward Rushworth and granddaughter of Lord Holmes, and entered Parliament as MP for Yarmouth on the 8th July 1882 at a general election. His parliamentary career was extremely brief, however, for on the 25th February 1803 someone else was returned in his place. He had resigned his seat accepting the motion to assume the office of Steward of the manor of East Hendred. Between his election and his resignation the House only sat in the period 16th November to 29th December 1802 and from the 3rd February 1803. He was thus effectively a member for little more than seven weeks.

However war broke out almost immediately and JPM went off to the newly founded Royal Military College at High Wycombe (later moved to Sandhurst) and on 18th May 1803 was gazetted to a company in the 66th Foot (the Royal Berkshire Regiment). During the next six years the regiment were on garrison duty in Ireland and their various moves may be followed in the history of the Berkshire Regiment. In spite of the fact that the Act of Union had just been passed and that St Patrick's cross had been added to the Union Jack, that country was still unsettled. A few years earlier there had been two French landings and the National rising had been defeated at the battles of the New Ross and Vinegar Hill. Pitt tried to include Catholic emancipation as part of the terms of the Union, but George III had refused to sanction such a clause (which might later have saved much unrest and bloodshed) because he considered it contrary to his coronation oath.

While stationed in Ireland the Murrays had three children who survived, a daughter and two sons. They were privately baptised in Ireland and each later publicly christened at Freshwater Church in the Isle of Wight - so they moved fairly often between Ireland and England.

Whilst in Ireland the regiment had been alerted that they might be sent abroad and there was speculation as to whether it would be to the East Indies, to South America or Ceuta (see the letters sent by JPM to his wife during this period - they are rather sad in that Elizabeth was unable to see her husband despite being in (a different part of) Ireland herself at the time, very heavily pregnant and with no idea where JPM would be sent next or when she would next be able to see him; the situation was even more poignant in hindsight as he would shortly sustain the injury which altered the course of his whole career). Actually they landed in Portugal in April, about the same time as Arthur Wellesley and on the 12th May 1809 they played an important part in the passage of the river Douro (see separate account of this).

Marshall Sault had entrenched himself on the north bank of a broad river in the town of Oporto and had kept a strong reinforcements on his right wing for fear Wellesley might attempt a landing by sea in his rear. Wellesley found some unguarded wine barges and a scuttled ferry boat upstream and, round a bend of the river, out of sight of the French, pushed over 30 men of the Buffs, who immediately occupied a convent. The Berkshire Regiment under Murray were then sent over to reinforce them. During this diversion the townsfolk in Oporto started to riot at and the Worcesters and the Guards crossed the river. The French retreated in confusion leaving behind their artillery and stores.

It was during the fierce fighting to retake the convent that JPM received the severe wound which ever after impaired his health and deprived him of the use of his right arm. According to his daughter, "his right elbow was shattered in the battle, the arm was on the point of being amputated, when Sir Arthur Wellesley came into the hospital and stopped the operation. However the arm was always useless". According to the official records of the Berkshire Regiment in the glorious fight at the seminary the 66th lost Major Murray and Captain Benning, both seriously wounded. The brigade was thanked on the spot by the Commander in Chief himself. In 1814 the Regiment received the battle honour 'Douro' for this action.

On the 25th May 1809 JPM was promoted Lieutenant-Colonel and subsequently employed in the Quarter Master General's Department in Ireland. On the 2nd November 1809 he was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the 5th garrison Battalion. From 1811 to 1819 he was assistant Adjutant General in Ireland and stationed at Athlone and on the 12th August 1819 he received the brevity of Colonel .On the 22 July 1830, he was promoted to Major-General, and was created a Companion of the Bath on the first creation of that class of order.

He died in Ireland at his home Killenure House, near Athlone after a few days' illness, in his 53rd year "greatly lamented by his family, and sincerely regretted by his relatives and friends " . An Irish newspaper describes the accident leading to his death as follows: "....the circumstances attendant upon the death of General Murray are rather of a tragic nature and afford a convincing proof of the finest feelings of human nature and the most humane and sympathetic dispositions are merely allied to or associated with courage and native bravery. He caught cold from his exertions in endeavouring to recover the bodies of two fellow officers who met with a watery grave on their way back to their barracks from his house".

JPM and Elizabeth had six sons and six daughters.

Elizabeth Murray, nee Rushworth, survived until 15th November 1865, when she died at Rossanna House, and was buried in Benowen churchyard. She was descended from two important families in the Isle of Wight. Records of the members of Parliament for Yarmouth, which was a pocket borough, show that you had either to be a Holmes, a Rushworth or a Jervoise! Elizabeth's mother Catherine, born in 1725, was the daughter of the 2nd Lord Holmes, whose family name was Troughear. The story starts with a gentleman who began life under the name of the Reverend Leonard Troughear. By 1763 this fellow was thoroughly involved in local politics and borough-mongering as Sir Leonard Troughear Worsley Holmes (having taken his mother's maiden name). In 1797 he became Lord Kilmalloch in the county of Limerick and he died in 1804. When his daughter Catherine (1765 - 1829) married Edward Rushworth at the tender age of 15 he gave her some land in the neighbourhood of Freshwater. Thereafter Edward Rushworth seems to have been described as ''of Freshwater House'' (this was possibly on the site of what is now described as Manor Farm). In 1790 Edward Rushworth added to his property by purchasing various fields from a Mr William Bowman of Brook, a neighbouring hamlet not far from Farringford .

It seems that when Elizabeth Rushworth married JPM they were given land on which to build a house by her father Edward Rushworth. This house was called Farringford Hill. When JPM went to Ireland with his regiment they clearly left some bills behind, possibly for completing the house. Edward Rushworth wrote to Thomas Sewell of Newport, Isle of Wight, as follows: "I am greatly hurt by receipt of your letter respecting the taxation of costs. I have repeatedly written to Murray on the subject and his answers were not at all satisfactory. I shall again write to Col. Murray and press the subject very warmly, adding that if he does not think proper to pay the costs, I shall make the satisfaction from my own purse, which has already undergone privations". The story is confirmed by Lizzie Harvey ( JPM's granddaughter) who stated in a letter that her grandfather began building Farringford "which was considered very foolish of him owing to his financial circumstances". She maintained that Elizabeth's father took the building off his hands and finished it. She also believed they had a lawsuit. Farringford Hill was sold on Edward Rushworth's death to a family called Middleton, who probably later sold it to Alfred, Lord Tennyson. Lord Tennyson later extended the house and renamed it Farringford House .

 



It is unlikely that James Patrick Murray took part in the festivities following the armiy's success at Douro. His arm had been completely shattered. In fact, it was on the point of being amputated when the Duke of Wellington interceded and demanded the arm be saved. However, it was thenceforth completely useless, and Murray always had to carry it in a sling, as the portraits of him by Sir George Don show.

Some of Murray's letters to his wife Elizabeth, who was from a well-known family in the Isle of Wight, survive. They date from just before and just after the passage of the Douro, and acquire a particular poignancy given the injuries that were inflicted on Murray in that battle: immediately before the regiment was sent to Portugal, Murray had no idea where or when they would next be sent. Elizabeth ("Betsy") was then staying fifty or so miles away in Limerick, and is most anxious to see her husband. He replies with great affection, but rejects the possibility as impractical, since she might arrive, after a substantial journey, only to find that the regiment has just left or is about to leave; then, they would be in a worse situation than now, he says. The letters give a lot of detail about the speculation which was rife in the regiment about where they will next be posted, and give an insight into how insecure the world of a military officer was, especially in those days of colonial expansion, where the army was deployed all over the world - for example: "...your surmise respecting the battalion on a draft going to the West Indies is not correct, as you will see in the letter which I wrote to you yesterday, that we do not pack our heavy baggage, we are to go in the lightest possible order and camp equipage is to be delivered to us today; I am convinced we are going either to Cadiz or Cueta - General Sherbrooke's expedition is driven into Cork entirely and an officer of the 88th, Mr McCarthy, who belongs to it, came on shore this morning to see his brother, who is in this regiment. He says that the orders were yesterday that we are to join that expedition...", and so it goes on. Then, a few days later: "I have nothing new since last night, we are all in the same uncertainty, the report is now that we are not to join Shellbrooke's expedition, but that they are to sail immediately and that we are to go as was first mentioned under Beresford, one report is to Cueta, and the other is to South America, the former destination I believe to be the true one, as if we were destined for South America we should receive more than two months pay in advance...."

Clearly, though, the couple are very much in love and missing each other. It is particularly touching that they are so close, relatively, and yet unable to be together, considering that he is to get a posting abroad in the near future. Murray's letters finish with real outpourings of feeling: "I must now, my ever dearest Betsy, conclude. God Almighty bless, preserve and protect you, my dear Catherine, James and little Pulteney, and kiss them all a thousand thousand times for me and believe me to be ever your most sincerely and truly affectionate husband". Sometimes he refers to his second son as "pretty Pulteney": it is interesting to note that, unlike his father and grandfather, and unlike his son and grandson, "pretty Pulteney" did not have a successful career in the army: maybe he was a little too pampered.

On the subject of James Patrick's 12 children, it is extraordinary that he got the time and opportunity to be so fecund, given the amount of time he spent away from home!

James Patrick's last surviving letter is after Douro, when he was still suffering badly from his shattered arm. The letter in full goes: "Thank God I am safely arrived in the Island - I landed at Ryde this morning and have suffered so much both in the boat and the hack chaise, that I find it impossible to come on to Farringford this afternoon- so much as I wish it. I beg therefore you will request Mr Rushworth to let you have the carriage to come over and we will return with you tomorrow. Do pray come - Sir H. and Lady Holmes are both extremely kind and request you will come - I cannot write more; God bless you all, remember me most affectionately to Mr and Mrs Rushworth and all, and believe me...".

 

Obituary in the Gentleman's Magazine June 1835
MAJOR-GEN.. J. P. MURRAY, C.B.
Dec. 5. At Killeneure, near Athlone,
In his 53d year, Major-General James
Patrick Murray, C.B.

This gallant officer was the only son of General time Hon. James Murray, (fifth Son of Alexander fourth Lord Elibank,) distinguished by his persevering defence of Minorca in the years 1781.82. It was at that period that the subject of this notice was born, on the 21st Jan. 1782, at Leghorn, to which city his mother had retired from the siege. She was Anne daughter of Abraham Whitham, esq. the British Consul-general at Majorca. He was educated at Westminster School; and, having determined to follow his father's profession, obtained an Ensigncy in the 44th regiment in 1796, and in the following year was promoted to a Lieutenancy in the same corps. In May 1798 he was appointed Aid-de-camp to General Don, with whom he continued in the Isle of Wight until June 1799; when he joined his relation and guardian Lt.Gen. Sir James Pulteney, and served as Aid-de-camp to that officer during the campaign in North Holland. He was present in the actions of 27 August, 10 and 18th Sept. 2nd and 6th Oct. and was in one of them slightly wounded. On Dec. 26, 1799, he was gazetted to a company, by purchase, In the 9th foot. He next accompanied Sir James Pulteney to the Ferrol, and was intrusted, by both the General and the Admiral in that expedition, with some important and confidential transactions. At the general election of 1802 he was returned to Parliament as one of the Members for Yarmouth in the Isle of Wight; but vacated his seat in the following March. At the peace of Amiens he was placed on half pay; and after studying for some time at the Royal Military Academy, was re-appointed to half pay in the 66th foot. In 1803 he espoused the amiable object of a long attachment, Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Edward Rushworth, esq. of Freshwater House, Isle of Wight, and granddaughter of the late Lord Holmes, by whom he has left twelve children. In Feb. 1804, he obtained by purchase, a Majority in the 66th, with which he was stationed in several parts of Ireland; and subsequently was appointed to the staff of that country as Assistant Quartermaster-genera1 at Limerick, which situation he relinquished in order to accompany his regiment on foreign service. With the same regiment he also served in Portugal; where, at the passage of the Douro, he received a severe musket wound, which not only completely shattered and deprived him of the use of his right arm, but ever after impaired his general health. His gallant conduct, on this occasion, is honourably recorded in the public despatch of Sir Arthur Wellesley, who, shortly after he had received the shot, came up to him on the field, and, taking him by the hand, said, -" Murray, you and your men have behaved like lions; I shall never forget you". On the 25th May 1809, Major Murray was promoted to the rank of Lieut. - Colonel; and on his return home, he was employed in the Quartermaster-general's department in Ireland. From 1811 to 1819 he was Assistant Adjutant-general, stationed at Athlone. In 1819 he received the brevet of Colonel, and in 1830 that of Major General.

His death was occasioned by a cold caught in his humane exertions to save the lives of two young officers, who were drowned in the lake in front of his residence (see p. 220). He possessed an accomplished and a benevolent heart; and was characterized by the highest honour, integrity, and worth.

P220 - Drowned by the upsetting of a boat on the Upper Shannon, near Athione, Ensigns James R. Byers and Win. J. Kerr, (see p. 110), both of 1st regt.

 

5. Elizabeth RUSHWORTH, daughter of Edward RUSHWORTH and Hon. Catharine HOLMES, was born on 15 October 1783. She died on 15 November 1865 in Benowen, Ireland.

 

Elizabeth Rushworth had two sisters Mary, Lady Dalrymple and Miss Jane Rushworth. Many sketches by Jane survive in an old scrap book. Lady Dalrymple in her lonely widowhood begged her niece and goddaughter Mary Joanna Harvey (nee Murray) to make her home with them at Purbrook Heath house. A copy of her letter headed 'Memorial to William and Johanna' is in the family records. ' She remained there for 9 years until her death in 1865. Apparently she was a very cultivated lady who was widely travelled having accompanied her husband on trips to Italy and Spain while he was in the Army. The portrait of her husband Sir John Dalrymple came from Purbrook and remains in the family. Mary Dalrymple must have spent the first years of her married life in Edinburgh as she compiled a " Compendium of the most useful and approved recipes in the most laudable art of cookery" which has also survived and is signed by her "Mary Dalrymple, January 1808, Edinburgh."

Sir John Pringle Dalrymple Bt. Was the second son of John D. a merchant and Lord Provost of Edinburgh, and of Ann Pringle. He was born 1778. He had a distinguished military career and became a Maj. General. He succeeded to the Baronetcy on the death of his elder brother, James in 1800. On his retirement he settled at Lymington in Hants and died in 1829.

Elizabeth was born about twenty mintures past seven am. Her sponsors were captain Christian, Mrs. Holmes and Mrs. Worsley (her aunt).

 

James Patrick 2 MURRAY and Elizabeth RUSHWORTH had the following children:

 

Catherine Anne MURRAY (1804-1895). Catherine was born on 21 September 1804 in Banagher, Ireland. She was baptised in Freshwater Church. She married Charles Routledge O'DONNELL on 4 September 1846. She died on 26 February 1895 in Kingstown, Ireland.

James Edward Ferguson MURRAY (1806-1834). James was born on 19 April 1806 in Clonmell, Tipperary, Ireland. He was a Lieutenant in the Navy. He married Katherine Jane SLAUGHTER on 15 December 1830 in Sandwich, Kent, England. He died on 17 July 1834 in Athlone, Ireland.

2

Pulteney MURRAY (1807-1875)

Harriet Elizabeth MURRAY (1809-1882). Harriet was born on 6 April 1809 in Co. Cork, Ireland. She was baptised on 20 December 1809 in Freshwater Church. She married Henry HODGES on 14 July 1834 in Benowen. She died on 29 June 1882.

Mary Johanna MURRAY (1810-1875). Mary was born on 5 January 1810 in Merrion, Dublin. She married Andrew NEWTON on 14 July 1834 in Benowen. She married William Francis HARVEY on 13 February 1849. She died on 31 March 1875 in Purbrook.

Jane Susan MURRAY (1810-1841). Jane was born on 13 October 1810 in Athlone. She died on 3 August 1841 in Benowen.

Charles MURRAY (1814-1848). Charles was born on 30 December 1814 in Athlone. He was a Soldier. He married Anne Mitchell SCOTT on 12 October 1844. He died on 6 April 1848 in West Indies.

Elizabeth MURRAY (1817-1904). Elizabeth was born on 6 February 1817 in Athlone. She died on 10 December 1904.

Henry Patrick MURRAY (1819-1855). Henry was born on 19 February 1819 in Athlone. He died on 29 June 1855 in Benowen.

Cordelia Maria MURRAY (1822-1909). Cordelia was born on 27 February 1822 in Westmeath, Ireland. She married Charles TROLLOPPE on 30 March 1864 in St. George, Hanover Square. She married Edmond BOWER in 1892. She died on 3 December 1909.

Douglas Alexander MURRAY (1824-1866). Douglas was born on 2 January 1824 in Killinure House, Westmeath, Ireland. He married Mary Anne MURPHY on 10 November 1848 in St. Louis, Missouri. He married Mary Ann BELTZHOOVER on 8 November 1855 in (First Evangelical Lutheran Church) Carlyle, Pennsylvania. He died on 19 July 1866 in Washington DC. He was buried in Carlyle, Pennsylvania.

George Don MURRAY (1826-1857). George was born on 10 March 1826 in Westmeath. He was a Sailor. He died on 12 August 1857 in Athlone.