See also

Edgar PRINCE OF ENGLAND (c. 1051-c. 1126)

1. Edgar "Aetheling" PRINCE OF ENGLAND, son of Edward KING OF ENGLAND (UNCROWNED) (1016-1057) and Agatha of Brunswick (c. 1018-1024), was born circa 1051. He died circa 1126. He married Margaret of Scotland.

 

Edgar Ætheling or Eadgar II (c. 1051 – c. 1126) was proclaimed, but never crowned, King of England. He was the last member of the Anglo-Saxon royal house in the Kingdom of England. Born in Hungary, he was also known as Edgar the Outlaw. The Anglo-Saxon name Atheling or, as it was spelled during the Anglo-Saxon period, Æþeling, means "man of noble blood, chief, prince" and was used in the later part of the period to designate specifically the sons of the king. Proclaimed king by the witan following the death of Harold II in the Battle of Hastings on October 14, 1066, Edgar was never crowned and submitted to William I some eight weeks later. He was only about thirteen or fourteen years old.

Edgar was the only son of Edward the Exile, heir to the English throne, and grandson of King Edmund II Ironside. Upon his father's death in 1057, Edgar was nominated as Heir Apparent by the king Edward the Confessor. Edgar was brought up at Edward's court, together with his sisters, Saint Margaret of Scotland and Christina. However he was too young at the time of the king's death in January 1066 to defend the country against impending invasion, and his election as king after Harold's death was no more than a symbolic token of defiance against the invading Norman forces.

Edgar relied largely for his support upon Archbishop Stigand and upon Earls Edwin of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria and, when this weakened within a matter of days of the witan, Edgar was forced inevitably to submit to William at Berkhamstead in either late November or early December 1066.

William treated Edgar well. Seeing political advantage, he kept him in his custody and eventually took him back to his court in Normandy. However, Edgar joined in the rebellion of the earls Edwin and Morcar in 1068 and, though defeated, he fled to the court of Malcolm III of Scotland. The next year Malcolm married Edgar's sister Margaret, and agreed to support Edgar in his attempt to claim the English crown. In exchange, Edgar married Malcolm's sister, another Margaret. Edgar now made common cause with Sweyn Estridson, the king of Denmark and nephew of Canute, who believed he was the rightful king of England.

Their combined forces invaded England in 1069. They captured York, but did not proclaim the independence of Northumbria. William marched on the north, devastating the land as he went. He paid the Danes to leave, whilst Edgar fled to Scotland. He remained in refuge there until 1072 when William successfully enforced a peace treaty on Malcolm, the terms of which included the exile of Edgar. Edgar eventually made his peace with William in 1074 but he never fully gave up his dreams of regaining the throne of England. He supported Robert, Duke of Normandy, against William II in 1091 and again found himself seeking refuge in Scotland. He also supported his nephew, Edgar, in gaining the Scottish throne, overthrowing Donald III.

Around 1098 he went to Constantinople, where he may have joined the Varangian Guard of the Byzantine Empire. Later that year he was given a fleet by Emperor Alexius I to assist in the First Crusade, and brought reinforcements to the crusaders at the Siege of Antioch. He was taken prisoner at the Battle of Tinchebrai in 1106 fighting for Duke Robert against Henry I. He returned to England where Henry pardoned him, and he retired to his country estate in Hertfordshire. His niece Edith (renamed Matilda) had married Henry I in 1100. Edgar is believed to have travelled to the Kingdom of Scotland late in life, perhaps around the year 1120, and was still alive in 1125, but may have died soon after, in his early seventies. By then he was forgotten by most and is remembered now only as the "lost king" of England.

Second Generation

2. Edward KING OF ENGLAND (UNCROWNED), son of Edmund II Ironside KING OF THE ENGLISH and Ealdgyth, was born in 1016 in Kiev or Hungary. He married Agatha of Brunswick circa 1035 in London, Middlesex. He died in 1057.

 

Edward the Exile (1016 – February 1057), son of King Edmund Ironside and of Ealdgyth, gained the name of "Exile" from his life spent mostly far from the England of his forefathers. When only a few months old, he was sent by the usurper Canute to be murdered in Denmark, rather than on English soil. Instead, he was secretely brought to Kiev and then made his way to Hungary. On hearing the news of his being alive, Edward the Confessor recalled him to England and made him his heir. However, Edward the Exile died shortly after his return, causing a succession dispute that ultimately led to the Norman Conquest of England.

The paternity of his wife Agatha is debated: the medieval sources agree that she was a sister of Hungarian Queen, and disagree as to other details. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and Florence of Worcester's "Chronicon ex chronicis" describe Agatha as a blood relative of the Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. Based on these sources, prominent genealogist Szabolcs de Vajay popularized an idea that she was the daughter of the Emperor's elder (uterine) half-brother, Liudolf, Count of Friesland (1962). Agatha's rare Greek name was recently interpreted in favour of a different version, expounded by Geoffrey Gaimar and Roger of Howden, that her father was a "Russian king", i.e. Yaroslav the Wise.

Their children included Edgar Ætheling and Saint Margaret of Scotland.

 

3. Agatha of Brunswick, daughter of Liudolf COUNT OF BRUNSWICK and Gertrud COUNTESS OF NORDGAU, was born circa 1018 in Braunschweig, Prussia. She died on 13 July 1024. She and Edward KING OF ENGLAND (UNCROWNED) had the following children:

 

Saint Margaret "the Exile" (1045-1093). Saint was born in 1045 in Hungary. She died on [Julian] 16 November 1093 in Edinburgh Castle.

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Edgar "Aetheling" PRINCE OF ENGLAND (c. 1051-c. 1126)

Christina PRINCESS OF ENGLAND (UNCROWNED) ( - )

Third Generation

4. Edmund II Ironside KING OF THE ENGLISH, son of Athelred II The Unready KING OF THE ENGLISH and Aelflyd of Northumbria, was born in 0981. He died on 30 November 1016. He was buried in Glastonbury. He married Ealdgyth.

 

Edmund was King of England for only a few months. After the death of his father, Æthelred II, in April 1016, Edmund led the defense of the city of London against the invading Knut Sveinsson (Canute), and was proclaimed king by the Londoners. Meanwhile, the Witan (Council), meeting at Southampton, chose Canute as King. After a series of inconclusive military engagements, in which Edmund performed brilliantly and earned the nickname "Ironside", he defeated the Danish forces at Oxford, Kent, but was routed by Canute's forces at Ashingdon, Essex. A subsequent peace agreement was made, with Edmund controlling Wessex and Canute controlling Mercia and Northumbria. It was also agreed that whoever survived the other would take control of the whole realm. Unfortunately for Edmund, he died in November, 1016, transferring the Kingship of All England completely to Canute.

 

5. Ealdgyth was born in 0963. She died of Natural causes in 1017. She was buried in Glastonbury Abbey.

 

Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power-struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmund's allies, Sigeferth and Morcar, executed. Edmund then took Sigeferth's widow, Ældgyth, from the nunnery where she had been imprisoned and married her in defiance of his father.

 

Edmund II Ironside KING OF THE ENGLISH and Ealdgyth had the following children:

 

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Edward KING OF ENGLAND (UNCROWNED) (1016-1057)

Edmund ( - )

 

6. Liudolf COUNT OF BRUNSWICK was born circa 1016 in Brunswick. He married Gertrud COUNTESS OF NORDGAU.

 

7. Gertrud COUNTESS OF NORDGAU was born circa 1006. She died on 21 July 1077. She and Liudolf COUNT OF BRUNSWICK had the following children:

 

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Agatha of Brunswick (c. 1018-1024)