See also

Saint (1045-1093)

1. Saint Margaret "the Exile", daughter of Edward KING OF ENGLAND (UNCROWNED) (1016-1057) and Agatha of Brunswick (c. 1018-1024), was born in 1045 in Hungary. She died on [Julian] 16 November 1093 in Edinburgh Castle. She married Malcolm III KING OF SCOTLAND.

 

Saint Margaret 'the Exile' was the daughter of Edward 'Atheling' and Agatha. She was born in 1045 at Hungary. She married Malcolm III 'Caennmor', King of Scotland, son of Duncan I 'the Gracious', King of Scotland and Sybilla of Northumbria, in 1069 at Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland. She died on 16 November 1093 at Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland. She was buried at Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife. She was buried at Jesuit College, Douai, France.


She was the granddaughter of Edmund Ironsides and 7th in descent from Alfred the Great
In 1250 she was canonised as Saint Margaret.

Born about 1045, Princess Margaret was a daughter of Edward "Outremere", or "the Exile", and Agatha, kinswoman of Gisela, the wife of St. Stephen of Hungary . She was the granddaughter of Edmund Ironside.



The chief authority for Margaret's life is the contemporary biography printed in Roman " Acta SS .", II, June, 320. Its authorship has been ascribed to Turgot, the Saint's confessor, a monk of Durham and later Archbishop of St. Andrews, as well as to Theodoric, a somewhat obscure monk

The Norman conquest forced the Anglo Margaret and her family to flee to Scotland in 1070 where shortly thereafter she married the King, Malcom II (Canmore). As Queen and co-Regent, Margaret bore eight children (two daughters and six sons). She was known to have been a particularly involved and good mother - a departure from the contemporary practice of leaving the rearing of children to servants and tutors. Margaret's daughter Matilda married Henry I of England , making her an ancestress of the present British royal house.



Queen Margaret was renown for her moderating and good influence on her husband and for her devout piety and religious observance. As Queen, Margaret used her influence to bring Scotland into the more modern practices, disciplines of European Christianity and is celebrated as a clerical reformer. Though strong-willed, Margaret used reason and encouragement to influence change, not her authority as co-Regent and Queen. Under Queen Margaret's leadership the Rite of the Celebration of the Mass was brought under standardized norms, the vernacular of the Mass was changed from the many dialects of Gaelic spoken throughout Scotland to the unifying Latin, the Scots began to receive Communion regularly, and the observance of Lent was improved.



Although her influence in causing the clergy to adopt Latin to celebrate the Mass was intended as a tool by which all Scots could worship in unity, along with the other Christians of Western Europe, Queen Margaret's introduction of Anglo-Norman manners and values into Celtic Scotland laid the cultural groundwork for the future induction of her land and people into a greater England and Britain. While many hagiographers view Queen Margaret's goals as not simply uniting the Scots, but Scotland and England together as a way of ending bloody warfare amongst the clannish highlanders, Scotland returned to a period of isolation immediately following her death.



In 1093, King Malcom was murdered through treachery near Alnwick and was buried at Dunfermline Abbey, which had been founded by in 1072 Margaret. She foretold the day of her death, joining her husband's eternal rest on 16 November 1093, her body being buried before the high altar at Dunfermline.



In 1250, Queen Margaret was canonized by Innocent IV, and her relics were translated on 19 June, 1259, to a new shrine, the base of which is still visible beyond the modern east wall of her restored chapel. At the Reformation her head passed into the possession of Mary Queen of Scots, and later was secured by the Jesuits at Douai , where it is believed to have perished during the French Revolution. According to George Conn, " De duplici statu religionis apud Scots " (Rome, 1628), the rest of the relics, together with those of Malcolm, were acquired by Philip II of Spain, and placed in two urns in the Escorial. When, however, Bishop Gillies of Edinburgh applied through Pius IX for their restoration to Scotland , they could not be found.



St. Margaret is remembered for her fervent faith, practiced piety and religious observance and continues to be celebrated as Scotland's most beloved saint. St. Margaret was loved by the poor, especially orphans to whom she was particularly attached in personal care and through the unceasing distribution of alms. She was the foundress of many churches, convents and monasteries, including the Abbey of Dunfermline, built to enshrine her greatest treasure, a relic of the true Cross. Her book of the Gospels, richly adorned with jewels, which one day dropped into a river and was according to legend miraculously recovered, is now in the Bodleian library at Oxford . St. Margaret's son King David of Scotland is also celebrated by the people of Scotland as a Saint.
Feast of St. Margaret of Scotland

The feast of St. Margaret is observed by the whole Roman Catholic Church on 10 June. The Episcopal Church Commemorates St. Margaret each year on the Sunday closest to the anniversary of her death November, 16 th .

This is the fast that I choose, says the Lord: to share your bread with the hungry, and bring the homeless poor into your house; when you see the naked, to cover them, and not to hid yourself from your own kin. Isaiah 58:6-7.

 

Malcolm III KING OF SCOTLAND and Saint Margaret "the Exile" had the following children:

 

Editha of Scotland (c. 1079-1118) (known as 'Matilda'). Matilda was born circa 1079 in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland. She had the title 'Queen Consort Matilda'. She married Henry I KING OF ENGLAND on [Julian] 11 November 1100. She died on [Julian] 1 May 1118 in Westminster Palace.

Mary of Scotland ( - )

Second Generation

2. Edward KING OF ENGLAND (UNCROWNED), son of Edmund II Ironside KING OF THE ENGLISH and Ealdgyth, was born in 1016 in Kiev or Hungary. He married Agatha of Brunswick circa 1035 in London, Middlesex. He died in 1057.

 

Edward the Exile (1016 – February 1057), son of King Edmund Ironside and of Ealdgyth, gained the name of "Exile" from his life spent mostly far from the England of his forefathers. When only a few months old, he was sent by the usurper Canute to be murdered in Denmark, rather than on English soil. Instead, he was secretely brought to Kiev and then made his way to Hungary. On hearing the news of his being alive, Edward the Confessor recalled him to England and made him his heir. However, Edward the Exile died shortly after his return, causing a succession dispute that ultimately led to the Norman Conquest of England.

The paternity of his wife Agatha is debated: the medieval sources agree that she was a sister of Hungarian Queen, and disagree as to other details. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and Florence of Worcester's "Chronicon ex chronicis" describe Agatha as a blood relative of the Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. Based on these sources, prominent genealogist Szabolcs de Vajay popularized an idea that she was the daughter of the Emperor's elder (uterine) half-brother, Liudolf, Count of Friesland (1962). Agatha's rare Greek name was recently interpreted in favour of a different version, expounded by Geoffrey Gaimar and Roger of Howden, that her father was a "Russian king", i.e. Yaroslav the Wise.

Their children included Edgar Ætheling and Saint Margaret of Scotland.

 

3. Agatha of Brunswick, daughter of Liudolf COUNT OF BRUNSWICK and Gertrud COUNTESS OF NORDGAU, was born circa 1018 in Braunschweig, Prussia. She died on 13 July 1024. She and Edward KING OF ENGLAND (UNCROWNED) had the following children:

 

1

Saint Margaret "the Exile" (1045-1093)

Edgar "Aetheling" PRINCE OF ENGLAND (c. 1051-c. 1126). Edgar was born circa 1051. He died circa 1126.

Christina PRINCESS OF ENGLAND (UNCROWNED) ( - )

Third Generation

4. Edmund II Ironside KING OF THE ENGLISH, son of Athelred II The Unready KING OF THE ENGLISH and Aelflyd of Northumbria, was born in 0981. He died on 30 November 1016. He was buried in Glastonbury. He married Ealdgyth.

 

Edmund was King of England for only a few months. After the death of his father, Æthelred II, in April 1016, Edmund led the defense of the city of London against the invading Knut Sveinsson (Canute), and was proclaimed king by the Londoners. Meanwhile, the Witan (Council), meeting at Southampton, chose Canute as King. After a series of inconclusive military engagements, in which Edmund performed brilliantly and earned the nickname "Ironside", he defeated the Danish forces at Oxford, Kent, but was routed by Canute's forces at Ashingdon, Essex. A subsequent peace agreement was made, with Edmund controlling Wessex and Canute controlling Mercia and Northumbria. It was also agreed that whoever survived the other would take control of the whole realm. Unfortunately for Edmund, he died in November, 1016, transferring the Kingship of All England completely to Canute.

 

5. Ealdgyth was born in 0963. She died of Natural causes in 1017. She was buried in Glastonbury Abbey.

 

Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power-struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmund's allies, Sigeferth and Morcar, executed. Edmund then took Sigeferth's widow, Ældgyth, from the nunnery where she had been imprisoned and married her in defiance of his father.

 

Edmund II Ironside KING OF THE ENGLISH and Ealdgyth had the following children:

 

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Edward KING OF ENGLAND (UNCROWNED) (1016-1057)

Edmund ( - )

 

6. Liudolf COUNT OF BRUNSWICK was born circa 1016 in Brunswick. He married Gertrud COUNTESS OF NORDGAU.

 

7. Gertrud COUNTESS OF NORDGAU was born circa 1006. She died on 21 July 1077. She and Liudolf COUNT OF BRUNSWICK had the following children:

 

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Agatha of Brunswick (c. 1018-1024)